Press Here to Return to Frugal's HomePage







Snares, traps, nylon gill-nets and set line will work for you day & night. Get them in operation as soon as possible.




However, because each animal has different habits, A WIDE VARIETY OF TYPES OF TRAPS ARE ESSENTIAL.




The animal itself, don't get excited when you see it; very often it is not certain what you are & will remain still. Make every movement very slowly & make first shot count


Usually beaten down through heavy usage, if recently used these trails are excellent for setting snares.


Water holes and salt licks are good locations for hunting in the early morning or evening. Trails leading to such places may give excellent site for setting snares, trap.

3) DENS:

Holes & food stores give good spot for setting up snare.

REMEMBER that the best place to capture an animal is the one where he goes to look for his food. There place snares etc.


May provide a wealth of information such as type, size, age, sex of animal, direction taken, the age of the tracks and whether the animal was frightened.


Tracks made by animals on the ground when read correctly show the pattern of the animal's habits.

This calls for continuous and careful observations. It is IMPORTANT to recognize the fact that animals are as much creatures of habit as human beings.

A particular animal will follow the same track to and from water day after day.

It will hunt in the same area continually & only leave the area when driven out by fire, flood, drought and even then only temporarily.


The best indication of what animal has passed; will sometimes reveal favourite roosting spots of birds.



Just spread a lot of shit around a circle about 200 feet in diameter. It attracts them crazy! Shitting on your doorstep kind of style but not your shit just theirs.

Sit on it, not shit on it! May sound crazy or shitty idea but it worked for Indians since the dawn of time or MacDonald!


There are 4 different divisions of animal feeding patterns. Tree feeding animals/ earth digging & feeding animals / flesh eating animals/ grazing animals.

Baits for tree feeding = fruits. For earth digging = roots, insects. Flesh eaters = flesh. Bait for Grazing = herbage, (Grass).


Thus test baiting you area will show you what animals are in the localities and what bait they will take.

To test an area select a site which is on a light dusty clean soil that will clearly show all tracks about 3 to 4 yards square.

Drive 10 to 12 short stakes each about a foot long into the ground and about 3 to 5 feet apart. Make a sketch map of the position of the stakes and notes of the bait each carried

THIS WORK MUST BE DONE IN THE AFTERNOON. When you have all the baits fastened to the pegs, brush the ground clean.

The following morning you MUST visit the area and on the soft dust you will see the tracks of all the creatures that visited the area during the night.

And what bait they took also will give you a good idea of your hunting ground, if plentiful or not. If you then make your traps and bait them with the correct baits, they will be effective for you.


Trapping calls not only for a knowledge of the mechanics and construction of a particular trap or snare but also for an intelligent knowledge of the habits of the animal to be caught.

This knowledge can be gained by observation of its movements and its feeding habits and by its tracks.

We know that all animals with cloven hooves are grazing but did you know that all animals which leave the track of a thumb or even 2 thumbs are all tree climbing animals.

And the animals which burrow show the track of their digging claws quite clearly & the animals which leave pad like tracks are carnivorous (flesh-eaters.)



Urine of species of animal you want to trap is an excellent scent killer. And urine of female of the species taken when she is "on heat" (go for it Tarzan) or in season is an INFALLIBLE LURE FOR MALES OF THAT SPECIES.

The urine should be taken from the bladder of a newly killed female and bottled up for future use.


Another fairly good lure is oil of Aniseed and oil of Rhodium. A very light touch of one of these lures on the bait is all that is required. Both will attract most bush animals.

SALT is also very effective lure in areas away from the coast but salt in itself is not a scent killer.


Are often highly effective. These may take the form of special whistles or may be in the form of squeaking or friction instruments.

Noise lures are not commonly used in conjunction with traps and snares.


ARE ALWAYS HIGHLY EFFECTIVE, small particles of food are scattered lightly around the area of the traps or snares and the animal scenting this food finds it plentiful in the area and scavenges round looking for more till finally he finds the bait in the trap & is caught!

Obviously some of the man scent will be on the food lure particles and although the animal may be suspicious at first finding that no harm comes to him his suspicions will decrease.

An excellent use for food lure particles is to scatter thinly along an animal trail, and then fairly thickly on either side of simple noose snare.


A point of interest is that most tree living animals will descend a tree if the base of the tree is consistently beaten with a heavy instrument such as the back of an axe or heavy club.

Nocturnal animals will descend a tree in broad daylight but the blows MUST be continued and fairly heavy.

It is probable that the animal feels the shock through the tree and obeying an impulse to quit before the tree falls, leaves its hinging place.

This is an excellent method of getting night feeding animals into daylight for time or meal time.


Trap mechanisms make use of following principles: Mangle / Strangle / Dangle / Tangle.

The dead-fall mangles. The snare strangles. Springy saplings can make a trap more efficient and take the game up in the air - it dangles.

The higher the sapling the more effectively it lifts the animal. A net tangles. Some traps combine 2 or more of these principles.


When setting traps, follow these basic rules:

1) Avoid disturbing the environment; Don't tread on the game trail. Do all your preparations off the trail and don't leave any sign that you have been there.

2) HIDE SCENT: When constructing or handling traps don't leave your scent on them.

Handle as little as possible and wear gloves if you can. Do not make trap from pine-wood and set it in a wood of hazel.

Each tree gives off its own smell- and the animal you are trying to trap have a very high sense of smell, many times sharper than yours.

Although they fear fire they are familiar with the smell of smoke and exposing a snare to the smoke from a camp fire will mask any human scent



One reaches that goal by rubbing his shoes with cedar branches or wild animal grease or oil or by watering his snare since water as fire removes scent.

You MUST also put grease or cedar branches on your gloves and NEVER HANDLE YOUR SNARES WITH BARE HANDS.

Even if your hands are well covered by gloves it is good to rub your hand with cedar. If no cedars around find in the area where the snare is going to be installed some aromatic plants which you rub your gloves with.

Once an animal has been caught with your trap or snares ALWAYS boil those with hot water before using them again.


1) Spruce needle or cedar crushed into your hands and gloves will also be use to be rubbed on your snares or traps and all its components so as to remove your scent.

2) Cedar has this double advantage to remove men scent and to attract the animal.

3) Dragging a dead bird or spoil meat will help a lot to remove your scent.

4) Also the water or FIRE removes your scent.


Leaves crushed have a strong perfume. If you crush them in your hands before, during and after you have masked your trap, you will leave the scent of the leaves on the trap and this will so much stronger than you main scent that it will drown the latter. Of course your scent will remain all around the area and the animal will be suspicious.


Fire is a good destroyer of man scent and if you scorch the trap or snare by making a torch of dry grass or dead leaves you will cleanse it to the animal's nose and will be less suspicious.


A women scent is stronger than men especially if she is in her time of menstruation.

BE CAREFUL this attracts bear and other flesh eating animals who smell blood way off.



1) Men scent can be smelled and discovered by animals up to 5 miles around your presence, so don't make it worst by having perfume or washing with scented soap or after-shave.

2) CAMOUFLAGE: Hide freshly cut ends of wood with mud. Cover any snare on the ground to blend in as naturally as possible with its surroundings.


An ensnared animal is fighting for its life. It exerts a lot of energy in an attempt to escape. Any weakness in the traps will be exposed.



Even if you spot a small animal it offers very little target & can easily take cover. Nevertheless be ready to take advantage of sitting prey if you get the chance.

There are many elaborate traps with complicated mechanisms. They take time to build & demand physical effort. The survivor needs simple traps that are easy to REMEMBER & easy to construct.


However, because each animal has different habits, a wide variety of types of traps are ESSENTIAL.


If one type fails, an alternative can be set. It is a matter of trial and error.

The survivor's own preservation MUST take precedence over humanitarian principles and unfortunately some of the easiest traps can cause considerable suffering to the animal.

A trap which could bring quick death to the species for which it is intended, perhaps by strangulation, may catch another animal by a limb and leave it suffering for hours.



Leaving a trap line unchecked will prolong an animal's pain and increase the risk that your catch may be poached by an animal predator.

Or that the prey will have managed painfully to struggle free- animals are known to bite off limb or inflict other self-mutilation to get away from a trap.


Avoid to come too close of your trap while checking them.

Just MAKE SURE that they have not been disturbed and if possible do not leave any hints of your passage like spitting etc. and don't bring your dogs along they leave a strong scent.


A great deal of error (her-roars?) can be eliminated by studying the animals and their habits.


If one does not work, try another. BE PATIENT. Give traps time. Animal will be very suspicious at first but with time will come to accept them and that is when they will run into them.

Even when on the move, a few simple traps, quickly set up overnight may be productive. And if you are making a more permanent camp you will be able to set up well planned lines of traps.


Establish as large a trap line as you can manage in your area. Inspect it at first and last light. Collect the game and reset the traps. Repair any traps as necessary and move those that are repeatedly unfruitful.

TO BE EFFECTIVE A TRAP MUST BE VERY SENSITIVE, so it may be fired accidentally.

You will probably have several empty traps for every success but this does not mean that you are doing things wrong.

You MUST accept a proportion of failures. They are no cause for disappointment. (OOPS's).

If a trap has not fired, but the bait has gone, it is an indication either that the bait was not sufficiently securely fixed or that the trigger mechanism is too tight. Check both when you reset the trap.

By doing the rounds regularly you effectively patrol an area. Noting the many signs of activity or change which help to build up knowledge of your surroundings.

At the same time you can forage for plants and other food or note what is available for later collection. Baiting a trap will attract the game.

In a survival condition food may be scarce but if you know there are animals to trap a little used as bait may be bring large rewards. Elephant?


To eliminate the human scent if you have forgotten to prepare your traps or snares, then strongly rub them with crushed spruce needles, this natural scent will remove suspicion.

Also REMEMBER to use gloves soaked in blood or coated with bee wax when handling your traps so as to remove your human scent keep this special pair of gloves just for the traps handling.

Avoid to spit or urinate near your traps. NEVER put #huile de charbon# on your traps, animals will shy away at all time.

Many #trappers# hide their traps for 1 to 2 months under a manure pile before using them, they say it removes the men scent.

Don't bring your dogs while visiting your traps, animals will smell their tracks for days and stay away from your traps.


When possible throw water on your traps and around since WATER REMOVES ALL SCENT.

Before setting your traps try them out first to see if they work well yet be careful. NEVER handle traps or snares with bare hands, use gloves.


Don't use shiny new trap, let them boil in water in which you have put different Evergreen branches.

After having it made to boil for 1/2 or 3/4 of an hour they will become covered with a paint like substances then remove the traps from the water & hang them to dry by the sun.

This substance will dry up and harden and will stop it from rusting and also will destroy the scent of iron /rust.

Another method to darken the traps by letting boil for many hours bark of oak, maple, birch till the solution becomes black.

Place the trap ring between the jaws and deep the whole thing in the solution that you let boil for another hour.

Then throw in the solution a chunk of bee wax / #paraffin# and let it melt then draw your trap one after the other so that they are covered with a small coat of wax. Then let them hang under the trees far from the house of camps till they dry.


Find the game trails or runs that lead from an animal home to where it feeds or waters.

Look for any natural bottleneck along the route where it will have to pass through a particular position- a deadwood fall or a place where the track goes under an obstruction will be ideal places to set a trap.

Do not place a trap close to an animal's lair. That is where it sits and listens and sniffs the air. If at all suspicious it will either stay put or use a less obvious route.

Don't place a trap close to its watering place either. There too, the animal is on its toes and alert, more likely to notice anything unusual.

If you lay traps down the side of natural pastures the animal will not go near them but use other routes.

However, when alarmed they panic and will take the shortest route to cover. That is when the crudest and most obvious of traps will be successful. Rabbits are easily caught by causing them to panic.


The simpler traps and snares are made of string or wire. It will be easier to keep a loop open in the air if you use wire and the wire in your survival tin is ideal.

Even the most sophisticated need nothing more than a knife to make them out of available wood. The choice of materials is important. Use strong, springy wood.

Do not use dead wood or wood found on the ground. Hazel takes a lot of beating: it is easy to carve & retains its spring and strength.


A bait bar is wedged between an upright and the lower part of a toggle, the upper part pressing against a retaining bar. The principle is like the platform snare with the bait bar replacing the platform.

Movement of the bait bar releases the toggle which flies upward under tension from a sapling above, carrying snare with it.

Taut line from bent sapling to end of toggle pulls against cross-bar. Bait bar keeps toggle in position.


This uses the same kind of mechanism as the toggle releases snare though this time the release bar keeping the toggle in position presses one end of the toggle upwards.

A line from the toggle passes over a tree limb to support a bundle of logs or other heavy weight above the trail.

From the release bar a trip line (usually a vine) runs above the ground beneath the suspended weight to a firm securing point.

Run the trip line under a forked stick (A) so that it will pull the trigger bar sideways when operated.


A rock or a group of logs lashed together is supported by a prop which is balanced over a fixed forked stick.

The other end of the prop is clear of the ground and held down by a short line attached to a toggle which is wrapped around the upright stick.

The toggle is kept in place by a bait stick wedged between it and the dead fall weight. Dislodging the bait stick brings the whole lot down. The forked stick is driven into the ground first.


These traps all work on the principle that when the bait is taken a weight fall on the prey. (Ouch!) All are good for pigs, foxes and badgers.

Larger versions can be used for bigger animals such as bears. (Sorry; no elephant! and no Dinosaurs!)


The large versions of these dead-fall traps can be extremely dangerous for humans as well as for the prey for which they are intended.

The toggle release & dead-fall traps have trip wires and are easily set off accidentally. Even in a survival situation ensure that every one knows exactly where they are.

In survival practice keep people away from them & NEVER leave such a trap set up at the end of an exercise. You cannot set a large dead-fall trap on your own.

Keep the mechanism to the side of the trail, well away from the dropping weight, or setting it will be too risky. BALANCE IS CRITICAL. You are unlikely to get it right first time.


A forked stick, its ends sharpened to dislodge rapidly and one fork suitably baited, supports one end of a cross-bar.

The other end of which rests on a fixed support, held there by the weight of the heavy logs or rock which rest on the bar.

When the bait is taken the whole trap collapses. Angle bait beneath the trap.


Similar to the balance log trap but using a notched upright as the support the lower face of the notch squared off. Fit cross bar against the squared off lower face of the bar supporting the weight.


The weight of a log or other weight suspended over the game trail pulls the line carrying it against a retaining bar held by short pegs secured in a tree trunk.

The line continues as tripwire beneath the weight. MAKE SURE that the line is long enough and tripwire anchor weak enough to allow weight to reach the ground.

Set the pegs slightly downward but keep them short so that the bar disengages easily.


A bait is set at right angles across an upright, the faces cut square and a shorter trigger lodged between them to maintain their position.

The trigger is linked to a springy sapling and the same line carries snares. When the bait bar is dislodged the trigger is released.

Four snares will effectively cover both directions on a game trail, or use in clearings to snare small carnivores.



This looks complicated but once learned is easily remembered and very effective. It can be made to any size.

A horizontal bait bar is balanced at right angles to an upright with a locking bar, which supports a weight, positioned over the bait, pivoted on the sharpened tip of the upright.

Bait bar notched on top to engage locking arm, square cut on side to fit upright. Locking arm sharpened at lower end to release quickly, notched at centre to pivot on upright.



These traps are particularly good for killing pigs and deer, but they are EXTREMELY DANGEROUS AND CAN BE LETHAL TO HUMANS.

ALWAYS STAND BEHIND THE SPEAR WHEN SETTING and ensure that the location and the danger is known to everyone.

Mark with signs to attract human attention. Except in survival situation NEVER leave spear traps set & unsupervised.


This uses the same mechanism as the dead fall trap but uses rocks to add weight & arms the trap with sharpened sticks. It delivers a stabbing as well as a stunning blow.


A VERY DANGEROUS TRAP which will kill the game. Effective against wild pig. A springy shaft fitted with a spear attached, is held taut above the trail.

A slip ring made from bound creeper or smooth material (not rough twine which could catch against toggle) attached to a trip wire acts as a release mechanism. A toggle (a) and short line (to a fixed upright) hold the spear shaft in tension.

A further rod through ring is tensed between the near side of the spear shaft and the far face of the upright securing all until tripped.


Similar to the spring spear trap but operating horizontally, this trap has the unarmed end of the springy shaft secured & lashed between four uprights.

At the business end, the toggle (anchored by a short line) retains the springy shaft, so long as the toggle is held against the horizontal bar by a ring. The ring is on the end of a trip wire, anchored to a post on the other side of the trail.

MAKE SURE that the spear is lashed very firmly to the springy shaft or it my be knocked sideways on impact instead of plunging into the animal's body.

Spear shaft is set a height level with the body of the animal it is designed to kill, or angled to spring to that height.

Tension exerted on the springy shaft requires the uprights holding it to be very firmly set in the ground & the lashing to be strong & secure.


Because spear traps are so Dangerous, MAKE SURE the cord and knots are strong enough to stand the tension.

NEVER approach these traps except from Behind the spear. Take no risk where these traps are concerned.


Taking the suspended bait dislodges a retaining ring to release the trigger bar, allowing the spear to fly upwards.

The ring holds the upper end of the trigger bar against an upright post, so that it retains the spear shaft.

The lower end of the trigger is restrained by a cord. To increase the traps' efficiency use several spear points on the bar.


This is a good trap for Monkeys. It is similar in action to the baited spring spear trap, but uses a perch instead of a bait as the trigger mechanism.

If the securing ring is around the trunk of a tree rather than a post. MAKE SURE that it is on a smooth area and can move easily.


NEVER leave this unattended where people could walk into it. It is a potential man killer. Rambo!

A simple bow made of suitable wood (see weapon) is held taut and angled to shoot slightly upwards by upright posts and a toggle switch with an arrow fitted.

The trigger bar is held in place by a toggle attached to a trip wire, which MUST be routed round to the point of aim.

Keep the first stretch of wire close to the mechanism for there is no point in it being tripped by an animal approaching from behind the bow.

This trap is suitable for large and dangerous animals and can work with animals coming head on to the arrow or approaching from the trip wire side. (The quarry passes across the arrow as it fires.) The arrow may also strike larger animals passing in front of the bow first.

(A) Notch arrow for bowstring and for trigger bar. Angle trigger bar tip to fit arrow notch, cut side to fit cross-bar. Set toggle between bottom of trigger bar and a fixed post. (B)


Cut a square face on an upright and a square notch on the side of a forked stick to engage it.

Notch the upper face of the stick to hold the bowstring. Attach trip wire to other prong of fork.


Salt is a necessary element of man and wildlife alike. So necessary in fact that it has been seen that a deer and a cougar will share the same salt lick in their enforced truce of salt starvation.

Taking this knowledge into practice, one can install his salt trap easily to capture any wild life like wolves, bear, deer, etc.

All you have to do is to put those cow salt blocks on a lets say a 3 miles triangle in the summer months.

And when the fall hunting season comes along just go where you put them & replaced them by new ones, the game will go there and you will then be ready to hit them.


Should wolves become to much a bother, then the Eskimo will spread some fresh blood upon the blade of his knife and stick the knife handle in the snow letting the blade in full view. Hiding behind the igloo door he sees the wolf coming up guided by his nose.

The wolf licks the blade and by so doing cuts itself now excited by the smell and taste the wolf gets more exasperated and looses all cautions licking and cutting itself crazy and after a while he becomes too weak and dies from having fed himself on its own blood.


Using a simple whale #fanon# the Eskimo cuts into the long #lame cornee a flexible languette# which he then sharpens at both end.

Then he bends this #languette# as much as possible and ties it together using an animal #ligament nerve# and hides the whole thing into a piece of lard which he lets into the cold to harden abandoning it nearby the area where the wolf hunts.

The wolf comes & swallows the piece in one shot, good stuff! But soon the lard will melt into the wolf stomach and then the whale #fanon# will spring open and puncture with its sharp ends the abdominal walls of the wolf. Bingo!


One of the best trap is the one that you have installed in on old empty tree trunk or stump and have covered with rotten wood.


Another method according to an old Indian is to simply attach a bird to a small stone and with the help of invisible wires.

Then you place this bait at water level about 1 foot from shore placing also your trap facing your bait near the water edge and slightly hidden in the sand or grass. Take also the precaution to water many a time your snares and baits to remove your scent.

In Winter you can tend your trap in the snow around some fresh carcass or in well-beaten fox track path.

Your trap MUST be covered with a thin layer of paper and a fine powder of snow on top of it. Secure your trap with a good stone or to a tree.



From mink to bear to wolves etc. Just fry it and try it next time, but BEWARE it does attracts them from miles around so be prepared to fight, kill or get the hell out of the way, they want that Bacon!


Whatever species one can capture with a snare beside the rabbit or hare there is also the fox, coyote, wolf, lynx or bobcat etc.

However beavers, muskrat etc. can not be taken in the following snares due to their physical shape being largely different.

But the following methods are proven techniques used with success over many years.

With one own experience one can invent other variations which will adapt itself to the terrain or species.

On a path where you would find a lynx you will very often find that the lynx follows the hare own path in the hope of a good meal.

So you will install in an "X" shape 2 trees about 4 to 6 inches which will meet or cross at about 30 inches off the ground.

Install your first snare with a 9 inches diameter under the "X" at 16 inches off the ground, then a second snare of the same diameter on top of the "X" in case the lynx would jump over the "X".


Is to install a snare with a bait. Over an uprooted tree or on a big low branch at about 7 feet off the ground you will put an or rabbit or any good bait for the lynx.

Put your snare about 8 inches above the trunk with a 9 inches diameter, if need be add a branch in order to sustain it.

For the lynx you need galvanised steel cable 3/32th of an inch, or 7X7 aviation cable & 36 inches long are ideal.

Note that the method shown here can be used for any animals named above and the only change being the size of the cable used as snare and the height where you will put the snare which will vary according to the species you are hunting.

If you hunt foxes and that you know that there are also coyotes then use the size for the coyote, otherwise the snare will not resist the coyote.

For a fox use a steel galvanised cable 1/16th of inch or 7X7 aviation type and 36 in. long. For the coyote use 3/32th inch. 7X7 aviation & 48 inches long. For the wolf use a 1/8th in. 7X7 aviation of 48 in. long is best.

Once you want to hunt these animals it would be much better if you can, to prospect your area in the summer, where you plan to put your snares.

So as to better spot the ideal location for them and to give them a lot of time to get used to your installations. Among the various places visited by these animals there are also trails of bigger games.

Look for a spot where the trail is blocked by a dead tree which forces the big games to jump over it but which would at the same time leave enough free space to permit the lynx, fox etc. to go under it.

Reduce to about 14 inches the width of this passage under the tree by using vertical branches as a kind of barrier.

When the time comes for your snares to be put in place you will have the perfect spot for them.


Among other places to hunt, there are the beavers dams which the lynx, fox etc. use as means of bridges & to go hunting.

There you will plant strongly a strong stick about 3 to 4 inches in diameter which will be used to hold your snare.

REMEMBER to use a dry stick if you don't want the beavers to cut it off.

Fox, lynx etc. frequently use small streams and rivers to move during the winter when the ice is frozen. Look for the spots where it becomes narrower and restricted by #aulnes#.

Using those branches to reduce this passage so as to leave only 2 openings since they usually travel in pairs.

Another method is to use a "corridor." In the forest look for a place used by them but which at the same time is particularly full of all kind of natural obstacles.

Once you have found one of those "corridor", trace a path about 15 inches wide and 100 feet long which you will clear of all branches, leaves and grass blades.

In the centre you will dig a hole into which you will bury the bait which would have been covered slightly with earth and leaves.

You will then install a snare on both sides of the bait at about 12 feet of the snare.


Similar to the one above consist in building a coral about 30 feet in diameter while leaving 4 to 6 openings into which you have installed your snares.

The interior of the coral will have been completely cleared off and the bait placed in its centre will consist of any parts of any game either big or even domestic ones.

Close to the bait, on a stump or stick you will have smeared a few drops of animal urine.

REMEMBER NEVER put any urine or drogue on or near the snares at the exception of the "corridor" or coral.



They are made of non-ferrous wire with a running eye at one end through which the other end of the wire passes before being firmly anchored to a stake, rock or tree.

A snare is a free-running noose which can catch small game around the throat and larger game around the legs. A snare can be improvised from string, rope, twine or wire.

Consider the kind of animal you are trying to trap when you place a snare. A rabbit for instance, tends to sit in cover and observe.

When satisfied that all is well it hops along. Setting the snare at a hand's length from a fall or obstruction on the trail accommodates this hop.

If the snare is closer to an obstruction the rabbit may brush it aside. A wire snare can be supported off the ground on twigs, which can also be used to keep a suspended string noose open.


For rabbits and small animals. Use your judgement to scale up these proportions for larger creatures such as foxes and badgers.

1) Make the loop a fist width wide.

2) Set it four fingers above the ground & 1 hand's width from an obstruction on the trail.

3) Check that it is securely anchored with twigs to support the loop in position if need be.


Make a snare more effective by using a sapling under tension to lift the game clear of the ground when it is released.

This robs the animal of purchase in its struggle to free itself and also helps to keep it out of reach of predators.


When game is caught the trigger bar disengages and prey is lifted off the ground.

Good for animals such as rabbits and foxes, it will trap game coming in both directions and is ideally situated on the game trail by a natural bottleneck caused by a dead fall or a rocky outcrop.

Cut notch in trigger bar (a) to fit notch in upright (b). Drive upright into ground. Attach snare to trigger bar and use cord to sapling to keep tension.


Mechanism as for spring snare, but here the quarry is tempted with a tasty morsel. The noose is laid on the ground, the bait strung above. As the game takes the bait the trigger is released.

Suitable for medium-sized animals such as foxes, this trap can be located in an open area as the bail will attract attention.

Small clearings in woods are good sites. The bait support stake should be only lightly driven into the ground as this MUST fly away with the noose.


The prongs of a natural fork of wood, or 2 sticks tied together, are pushed firmly into the ground. The line from a bent sapling is tied to a toggle and to the snare and the toggle then passed under the fork.

When the game takes the bait, which is on the end of a separate bar, the bar disengages and the toggle flies up carrying the snare & hopefully the game.

This is a trap for larger game such as deer, bears and large felines. For the herbivorous deer bait with blood or scent glands, which will arouse its curiosity.

The upper end of the toggle presses against the fork and the lower end is prevented from pulling back through by a bait bar between it and the fork- the pressure of the toggle holding it in position.


The upward counter thrust from the keep stick (a) on which the snare arm (b) rests prevents the switch from pulling it up.

When the game becomes ensnared the snare is dislodged from the keeper stick and the switch line slips off the other end. Suitable for small animals such as rabbit.

Site it on the game trail. Note how the switch line secures one end of snare arm (b) while the other rests on the keeper stick (a) keep the switch line near the end of the snare arm. (c)


This snare can be used to cover 2 game trails in open country. The arm carries two snares and is held in a notch by the tension of the switch line.

Once ensnared, the animal' struggles will disengage the snare arm regardless of the direction from which it originally approached.


A rounded grip holds the snare arm here, the switch line is best pulled back at a slight angle to keep it in place.

Suitable for animals such as rabbits and foxes. Although tensed in one direction, the bar will dislodged by an animal's struggles.

A wide area can be covered by employing several snares on a long horizontal bar. Use where the game trail widens or offers options.


This trap is ideally sited in a small depression on the game trail. Snares are placed on the platform on either side.

When the platform is depressed the trigger bar is released and the game held firmly by the leg. Ideal for larger game- such as deer, bears or large cats.

A platform of sticks, stiff bark or other firm materials rests on bottom bar, upper bar fits in notches.

A similar mechanism (A) to that of the platform trap, but using a large snare and no platform, is activated by displacement of either toggle or bottom bar to catch small game by the neck.


Two forked sticks hold down a cross-bar which engages with a baited notched upright (attached to a line in tension) which holds it in place and carries the snares.

Site this trap in clearing to catch small carnivores & pigs. Retaining bar, at least a section of it, should be squared off to fit a square cut notch on the bait stick.


Two saplings are notched to interlock when bent towards each other over the game trail. A vertical bait bar is lashed near the end of one of them.

Two snares can be attached to each sapling, they need to be fairly stiff wire to hold their positions. This is another trap suitable for use in clearings to catch small carnivores. When the bait is taken the game is held in the air between the saplings.


Digging pits disturbs the environment and leaves a permanent mark. This will alarm some animals. In others, curiosity may outweigh discretion and they will investigate.

Baiting the whole may bring animals sniffing. Foxes, pigs, wild cats and badgers will all dig up rubbish pits and this could attract them.

The animal smells the bait and pushes its head down. If it goes past the stakes it will not be able to retract it. If it uses a paw it will become ensnared.

Drive four sharpened pliable stakes through the edges of the pit to emerge below surface where they are less noticeable. Lay a noose across them, attached to a post outside pit.


Dead sticks may be inserted into the ground to guide the rabbit into the snare. A:close up of the loop, wires MUST be twisted together.

In fact MAKE SURE that whenever you use sticks for rabbit snares that they are dead wood otherwise the rabbit will chew them off.


The rabbits use the same path over and over & the best way to check if the path is a fresh one is to verify if the twigs that are cut are freshly cut.

This was his menu, if they are freshly cut then this is where you will place your snare. There is no need for bait to attract a rabbit unless you use a paddock.

Also there is no need to eliminate human scent. However when there is moonlight it is better to darken the copper wire by smoking them with birch bark to stop them from shining.

If you have no copper wire #fil de laiton# you can use salmon fish line which you have coated with tobacco juices to prevent the rabbit from chewing off the line.

The snare can be fixed to a fix horizontal pole of about 1/2 inch (1.2cm). in diameter and 5 feet (1 1/2m) long.

But it is much preferable to use a pole which is not straight but which bends easily because when the rabbit feels he is snared he gives a sharp thrust thus breaking the snare and gets away.

The entrance opening of the snare MUST be about 3 1/2 inches (8cm) and about 5in. (12cm) from the ground.

REMEMBER the branches or twigs which are used to fill the space around the snare MUST be dry, otherwise they will be eaten by the rabbit.

Don't forget to place in X shape those twigs directly under the snare because the rabbit hates to scratch his soft belly on vertical twigs.

If instead of tying your noose to a fix or firm pole you prefer to use a swinging pole either from a spruce, willow or alder then remove the bark and plant it strongly about 5 feet (1 1/2m) at the right or left of the opening and about 2 feet (60cm) ahead.

In WINTER use a dry bending pole because if you use green wood the wood or pole will stay bent under the effect of frost and will loose its spring motion.


A hunter used this trick: he made a paddock about 150 feet (45m) long by 100 feet (30m) wide using spruce branches of 3 feet (90cm) high all around in which he left at least a dozen openings for the snares.

The baits were placed in the middle and were made of fine fresh branches of Willow and Alder. In 3 weeks he captured 27 rabbits.


One of the best winter secret about rabbit bait is to cut down a small green (live) Birch, in the morning you will see that the rabbit have come to eat especially the heads of the little branches of your Birch. There is now the place to tend your snare.

REMEMBER one of the weakness of the rabbit is that once pursued it goes around in a big circle to come back at the start point or at its hide out.

Also it is a night animal feeding at dawn or at sunset. The sun hurts his eyes so it stays asleep during the day to avoid the glare.


By hitting the tree stumps or at the root of trees where you find boroughs and jumping on them you would be surprises how many rabbits would come out.

Yet if there has been rain or snow all night then the rabbit will come out to feed during the day. Shooting fast is normal and shooting where you just saw the rabbit disappear is probably where it hides.

The rabbit is excessively vulnerable and a few pieces of lead is all it takes to kill it. # 4 and # 5 are the best size shot.

Once shot you clean it but you should wait 24 hours before eating it, and let it marinade in wine all that time for best result.


These are not rated as table delicacies but if you can shoot or snare or trap them put them in the pot.

MINK: (Women best friends)

This small animal is very curious, the male will usually travel in a 20 mile range whereas the female sticks around a couple mile.

It loves water from which it gathers its food, you find him along rivers, small streams and looks for fish which is his choice food. It eats also rabbits, mice and sometimes small birds etc.


There are many ways to trap mink using "cabins" which you cover up with spruce branches or fern or in small streams where you put your traps in the narrowest place which you will also be able to capture Muskrats. ALWAYS place your drug (female oil) at the door of your "cabins" near your traps.


It is to make a notch on a lumber or any piece of wood which would stick out of the water in a frozen river and then you put your trap on it. The mink will usually get trap since he loves to play through the ice.

If your trap is set in the water ALWAYS place the peg that retains it in such a way that the mink stays trap stopping it to go to escape in the water.

For the FALL HUNTING the water traps are very efficient. Find a hole or dig one about 8 inches deep and 4 inches in diameter upon an over edge bank where the water is of little depth but where the current is strong.

Put the bait at the bottom of the hole and the trap in 2 inches of water at the opening of the hole.

Cover the hole with dead leaves covered with mud to make it stick together and fix the chain of your trap in deep water or attach it to a wire or stick so that the animal drowns as fast as possible. Fresh fishes are the best bait to capture the mink.

Throw a couple fish oil drops in the hole or other drugs to help you. If you have a box of sardines then it is your key to mink & Jane late-her?!?.


This trap can be used for several types of rodents. All you need to do is to use a big rat trap which you fix at about 5 feet from the ground.

Or if in winter well above the snow line, use a pole leaning to a tree to help the animal reach the trap, then bait the rat trap which fixed well to the tree, the animal will do the rest.


Once an animal has been caught with your trap or snares ALWAYS boil those with hot water before using them again.


To snare a Gopher you simply chase him down his hole, stretch a binder-twine noose around the opening, and crouch low about 20 feet away.

The gopher is by nature extremely curious. Soon you will hear his wheeze chirp from just inside the hole and his head will appear.

Don't move, he'll come farther. When he is halfway out, yank on the twine and you've got him.


Drowning out is simpler, more crude and depends on a supply of water. You sprint back and forth from the slough, fetching water in a can or your hat or bottle.

Then you pour it down the hole until the gopher stick his head up through the mud. Then you club him. Bingo!

The trick is to pour the water fast, otherwise you hear it gurgling away in the many subterranean passages and no Gopher. (OOPS! You goofed!)


The "B" end should be about 4 lbs heavier than the other end. Make certain that the balance pole will light the rabbit clear of the ground as PIX #? shows

Rabbit snares should normally be 4 1/2 inches in diameter and 3 inches from the ground. "C"8 nicks to hold up the snare.



The Muskrat is found in pond, slough and marsh area, the beaver along streams and lakes passing through poplar on willow country.

They may be shot while swimming usually in the early morning or late evening. Beavers and muskrats usually maintain paths where snare may be placed.

In the early spring and late fall evidence may be found of these animals coming out from under the ice. You may cut one off from the safety of the water.

The muskrat is found in swamps and marsh, just spread open the tall grass and you will find his tracks or path. In the rivers it usually hangs around where there is clay.


Even with its 50 lbs, the beaver is shy and suspicious especially the elders. The male and female carry a double series of very useful glands giving the "castoreum".

This oily extract was used in the dark ages as a universal remedy and it has been used for a long time as an #antispamodic# and against ear ache as well as with clove.

Old trappers use it in an infusion which they drink to get back on their feet, a sort of perk up natural state.

Today it is used in the bait composition because a great number of wild life animals are attracted by this scent.

It is carefully gathered by letting melt this yellow substance in wax #paraffin# in a proportion of 1 to 10 for the later.

Keep the extract in a bottle well tight so as not to loose the scent. The gamy beaver flesh is an excellent bait to attract wolf, lynx, coyote, fox, skunk & muskrat. Its flesh is good food for man. Before roasting the meat, remove all the fat and let it rest a while in a light brine.


At the beginning of Spring the beaver needs fresh food like a willow of at least 3 inches in diameter, in a warm day they go out around 3 PM if it is cold around 1 PM.

Make a fence of DRY TWIGS on each side of their path with the goal to force them to use only this path in their quest for food.

The snare a good strong steel wire of 5 threads (1/2cm) in diameter is fixed at the end of a swinging pole of which the big end is at least 6 inches or 14cm in diameter & about 18 feet or 5 1/2m long.

This pole is placed in the centre of the path in the free space of the fence. The diameter of the snare is 18 inches (24cm). This snare is retain indirectly to the ground by tying it to the bait

This bait is a willow stem of about 1/2inch (1.2cm) in diameter which you have let a few knots & is held in place by the underground roots.

The bait is about 6 inches (14cm) behind the snare. The leaning point of the leverage when the snare is in place is located in a dry wooden fork well fixed in the ground at least 15 inches deep.

The lower part of the snare touches the ground & is maintained in vertical position by a small piece of dry twig slanted and fixed in the soil.

When everything is ready, the big end of the log is raised up off the ground at least 6 to 7 feet (180-210cm).

The beaver getting through the opening of the fence will get in the snare in order to reach the bait.

And in order to do so he has to get its head and one paw at least which does not bother him much since the willow stem is fresh and so tempting.

At the first teeth bite; the stem is cut off and the log no longer retained goes upward, since the centre of gravity is at the bigger end and the beaver is shut upward hung by the head & one foot and because of its own weight it can not free himself and it soon dies.


Victor 4 or Conibear 330.

LYNX: #Bobcat#

They are seldom seen except by hunters using tracking dogs. The meat is most good close to tender young pork.

Where there are a lot of rabbits then usually there are Lynx. They have a love for catnip (#valeriane#) and beaver gland oil.


A rabbit or a wing of a duck or partridge will do as bait. If & when making cabins to snare them ALWAYS use dead wood.

To snare them you have to use a really flexible wire but many trappers use the big cod fish line which is easier to carry. The opening of the snare is 8 to 10 inches (19-24cm) and about 10-15 inches (24-36cm) from the ground.

In order to keep the snare its shape, coat it with spruce gum or sap which has a second effect of reducing human scent.

LYNX IDEAL SPOT: (On your wall?)

The ideal spot is where the lynx has passed under a toppled tree. The little work involved is to your advantage.

But you will have to plant 2 sticks on each side of your snare and to attach it diagonally to maintain it in place.

In the free space under the snare place 2 sticks in X and 2 or 3 more placed vertically. The hole MUST be pentagonal shape rather than round.

Use the same swinging pole system as described for the beaver farther down p9 but instead of adder as bait behind the snare, use a rabbit or wing of duck or catnip or beaver oil gland.


Very easy, along the path used by the lynx choose a tree, let hang a wing coated of catnip oil or beaver oil gland at about 4 feet (120cm) from the ground.

The wind will swing it around and will attract the attention of the lynx. At the foot of the tree you will have put your trap hidden by dead leaves and well anchored to a nearby tree.

If the lynx is not dead BEWARE because it can jump up to 8 feet (240cm) high. One way to get him if no gun and it is caught is to use 2 sticks.

About 5 to 6 feet long (150-180cm) one to keep him at bay and the other one has a noose at the end like the one you use for birds which you will pass around the head.

As soon as the lynx feels he is caught instead of trying to remove it the lynx will catch the rope and will pull on it with all its strengths thus strangling himself in the process quickly.


Balance pole tied to adjacent tree. Ensure that the weighted balance pole is balanced & positioned so that it will lift the victim clear of the ground.

Side view showing trigger mechanism. Dotted line represents the fence which ensures that the animal MUST insert its head through the noose to obtain the bait. "A" cord to trigger mechanism "B" cord with noose.


Constructed from piled up rocks and stones 6 feet high. Good to catch fox, wolves and coyote. As for the fox REMEMBER that the fox trap should be on crest of hills since the fox usually passes on the crest of hills rather than around it.



A snare made of cable or heavy wire 24 inches in diameter & suspended about 18 inches above ground should produce good results.

MAKE CERTAIN THAT THE SNARE IS VERY WELL ANCHORED. Use a solid dry wood log about 10 feet long and 6 inches in diameter.


Another good method when put in a well travelled trail. Dig in the trail a hole about 6 inches deep and the same width of the trail.

Put on the hole a rectangular piece of cardboard or piece of parachute shroud which you have cut in the middle a X cross about 12".

Make a snare using shroud webbing #corde de suspente# or any strong rope and place it on the cardboard and attach it to a big log, once installed the snare MUST be covered with grass, leaves & a little dirt.

With the cardboard or paper you are assured that the snare will cling to the animal foot till the rope is fully secured tight.

The animal will drag the log for a short distance and become exhausted thus ready to be captured and killed.


A classic snare in its type. Use with success with otter also with Bob cat and the mink or any animals living near water.

Construct a round barrier just wide enough for the snare. The entrance is placed low enough so that the animal needs to lower its head in order to get in.

The pendulum is fixed on a tree trunk and MUST be fairly flexible. The bait is attached to it at about 4 feet so as to discourage squirrels.

The snare is fixed a the other end of the pendulum and it passes through a brace or stud solidly fixed in the tree. It is this stud that will hold the animal in the snare when it will get caught.

SNARES: Diameter 10 inches height = 1/4 inch.


Attach a snare to a strong stick across the ice hole in the snare you will bait it with a small piece of fresh Aspen.


By fixing a big stick in the water through the ice hole around which you have fixed 2 or more snares. The bait is attached to the trunk.


If you desire to use a trap on snow, let boil water mixed with lime then dip it in, it will come off all snow-white. Mix 2 gallons of water with 2 quarts of lime boil it till white.

To cover up such a snow-trap get some waterproof butter paper, cut a piece to the size of your open trap and then make a cut of 3 inches in a form of a cross at the centre of the paper.

This will stop the paper from making noise when the animal walks over it. A little honey on the trap will make the paper stick.

The whole trap MUST then be covered of dry dust or of snow and another piece of the same kind of paper placed under the trap would prevent it from freezing up.


In principle and to prevent the animal to break everything around it is better to attach the snare at a flexible pole rather than a pole which is strong & rigid.

Your snare is rolled around the pole several times before attaching it permanently to the height which is desired.

When the snares have a grand opening and in order to help them retain their shape and stay open, you attach this snare by means of small black or dark thread to 2 small pegs located on each side or use a small twig at the base of the snare.


Useful snare to take a bird perch on a branch. Fix your snare at the end of a pole but you MUST take the precaution to move it away at least 7 inches from the end of the pole.

And that you put it in a diagonal otherwise you will have difficulties, also MAKE SURE that the snare wire is well attached to the pole.


This type of snare is made of 3 parts. A swinging pole, a fix horizontal pole holding the snare & the snare itself.

We use this snare to eliminate the sudden movements of captured animals in the snares to prevent them to break the snares and to get away. Many hunters use this snare for rabbits.

The snare in this case is made of 2 knots placed one on top of the other under a fix horizontal pole. The knot above or retaining knot & the slippery knot under the pole.

The same wire is used to make the 2 knots and the retaining knot is nothing else than the folding of the wire on itself made directly under the horizontal fix pole & in contact with the pole.

This fold is maintain in position by the upward tension or strain of the pole lifting it up and the insertion of a small piece of an additional wire attached to the master wire under the pole.

#Plus la tension ascendante est grande plus la pression exercee sur le repli du fil rend le contact avec le dessous de la perche eminent.#

If however a rabbit or any other animal is caught in the noose it will make a tension in such a way so as to make the retaining wire knot slide completely & the #equilibrium# of the forces will be broken & the swinging pole will bring it all up.


Trap using figure of 4 with swinging pole to combined.


Built a circle using dry sticks, sticking upward into which you have let many openings into which are installed your snares. At the centre of the circle you place the bait for ex; Aspen oil.


Fox ex. Those animals which you use little cabins to snare them such as #martre, pekan, belette, loup-cervier, chat-sauvage etc#.

Prepare those cabins a couple month ahead and place some baits before the hunting season starts, even your traps near by but not open so that the animal gets used to them and becomes less suspicious thus getting caught easier later on.

As for your cabins NEVER USE fresh cut wood but ALWAYS Dry wood or half rotten which you find in the bush.

The best cabins are those found already in natural state such as hollow tree, hole under fallen tree, piles of rocks etc.

If you find them in an area used by animals, place your snares in front of them. But sometimes these "cabins" MUST be man made.

They MUST be just large enough to let the animal get in so that it can not move around inside yet high enough so that the animal feels at ease.



To eat flesh without any fat for ex. Rabbit will kill you just as not to eat anything, you need fat. How much do you need fat, eat it till you don't want any more.


1) Dig a hole in ice or use an otter hole.

2) Drive in 2 big stakes (pegs) in between which you fix a Conibear # 330 which you bait with a fish.

3) The same technique can be used with a loose snare wire baited with a fish but add to the 2 stakes 2 more stakes placed diagonally so as to solidly fix the snare. SNARES: Diameter 10 inches height = 1/4 inch.

SNARING: chk rptt

To rig a loop set, place the snare on a game trail along a slope or stream so that the weight will fall far enough to hoist the animal out of reach of hijacking predators.


Generally forbidden practice but OK in survival is the jacking which is the act of attracting and holding an animal's eyes at night by the beam of light.

Deer are among the big game creatures that can be readily spotted and held in this fashion long enough to be shot. Bear on the other hand will sometime fall backward in their haste to scramble out of the way.


Likely places for jacking are on the downwind sides of well used game trails & water holes.

Licks are occasionally found where the ground is so tremulous that one may sleep in brush or tall grass until awakened by the quivering caused by the animal weight.

Strategically located trees are particularly favoured locations both because the deceptive way one's scent is dissipated and because of the often increased visibility afforded by a seat high amid branches.

Procedures for any reasonable contingency should be well thought out ahead of time for it will be necessary to move and hold the light so as to see both animal & sights.

The darker the night is as matter of fact the better in many respects it will be for jacking.

During nights when the northern lights are bright or when the moon is large on the other hand one may be able to distinguish and shoot a game animal without additional illumination particularly if he has a good light gathering telescope sight or infra red one even better.


The Hudson Bay CIE recommends the use of dead-falls by any of its employees who may be stranded without adequate food in the Northern wilderness.

ESSENTIALLY you might prepare a dead-fall by lifting one end of a heavy object such as a log.

This end you would prop up with a stick doing so with such studied insecurity that any animal or bird who moved the support would knock it loose. You would probably encourage this latter by affixing some bait to the prop.

You might even go further arranging a few branches so that to reach the bait the victim would place himself so as to receive the full weight of the dislodged dead-fall back of the shoulders.


If you may be in one place long enough to justify the effort you might prepare a pit in a heavily travelled game trail and cover it as deceptively as possible with branches and leaves.

Aborigines to MAKE SURE that no animals will escape from such a hole often implant sharpened sticks in the bottom of the trap to pierce anything that tumbles in.


Even if no firearm you may want to set a few snares based on simple principles and as primitive.

With strong enough thong or rope you can snare deer and larger animals. With nothing huskier than horsehair or light fish line, squirrels and rabbits can be caught.

A snare is in effect a slip noose paced with the object of tightening about and holding a quarry if the latter inadvertently moves into it.

The size of the snare depends on the size of the animal you are trapping. For ex. on a rabbit trail the loop should be about 4" in diameter and hang from 1 1/2" to 3" above the ground.

Lets assume for the sake of PIX #?; that we want to snare a rabbit for the pot. We can see that they like other animals follow regular paths.

We will then hang the slip noose that the rabbit will run headfirst into it and quickly choke himself.

We may want to go one step further and narrow the trail at that particular spot. This can be done in several ways.

We can drop a branch or small tree as naturally as possible across the track making a narrow slit in it which to suspend the noose.

We can block the bottom, top and sides of the runway with DEAD brush except for a small opening where the loop awaits.

All possible guile will be bent to make everything seem as congruous (normal) as possible, an achievement whose necessity increase in direct proportion to the intelligence of the prey sought.

Trappers customarily prepare snares moths ahead and leave them with the noses harmlessly closed until fur season, to blend with the surroundings. Small pot animals however can usually be snared by beginners with a minimum of artifice.

A quick way to collect squirrels for exemple is to lean a pole against a conifer under which there is considerable squirrel sign and at 6 or so points on the pole attach small nooses.

A squirrel scampering up to the incline runs his head into the waiting loop and falls free. Its dangling there does not seriously deter other squirrel from using the same route and being so caught themselves.

We can tie one end of the snare to a stationary object such as a pole or a tree. We can tie it particularly if snow makes tracking easy, to a drag such as a chink of deadwood.

Preferably as shown in the PIX #? of snares that have proved particularly effectual, we can bend a sapling and arrange a trigger so that the animals will be lifted off its feet and if not choked as humanely as possible under the conditions at least rendered unable to exert direct pressure.


Distasteful at it may be to him, a starving man is occasionally forced to smoke small animals from places of concealment.

Sometimes an animal can also be driven to within reach of a club by quantities of water being poured into a burrow.

The opening may be such that is will be possible to impale the creature on a barbed pole or to secure it by twisting a forked stick into its hair and skin. One is frequently able to dig with success.

One may also have some luck by spreading a noose in front of the hole, hiding a short distance away and when the quarry ventures out jerking the loop tight.


Lemmings have been found valuable as an emergency food by RCMP on rescue patrols.

Lemmings are the little stub-tail mice that when reaching the ocean on their migrations occasionally start swimming with the possible belief it is just another lake or pond.

In winter their nest on a near the ground, deep in snow-drifts and you will have to dig for them. In summer you can find them by overturning flat rocks.

You can get them by setting snares of very fine wire along the runways. Lemmings are constantly preyed upon by shrews, weasels, foxes and owls. They are edible too.


Both slingshots and bows & arrows you are only limited by the material. Their successfulness depends on practice.

You will be the best Jane or Crusoe you can, and if you have the ingenuity & resources necessary anyway you are likely to succeed.


They are like thistles and nettles a better eating than it might seem reasonable to expect.

He is ravenous for salt slow moving and dull rodent and anything that is touched by human will be investigated by sharp inquisitive teeth for salt moisture.

The porcupine is the one animal that even the greenest tenderfoot though weak with hunger can kill with a weapon no bigger than a stick.

All one usually has to do thus to collect a meal is reach over the animal & strike it on the head. Being so low in intelligence, the hedgehog requires a lot more killing than might be expected. (Numb skull?).

Porcupine can not of course shoot their quills but any that are stuck in the flesh by contact MUST be pulled out immediately for their barbed tips cause them to be gradually worked in out of sight.

Dogs are common victims. If your dog gets thus caught then lash the pet as motionless as possible against a tree & use your weight for any necessary additional leverage.

Pincer can be improvised by splitting a short branch. At any rate each of the hundreds of quills has to come out or death may be the last painful result.

This danger from quills is one reason why it is a poor practice to cook a porcupine by tossing it into a small fire.

Very often all the quills are not burned off. Even if they are considerable amount of fat is lost as well. FAT IS ESSENTIAL IN SURVIVAL.


The BEST PROCEDURE is to skin out the porcupine first turning it over so as to make the initial incision along the smooth underneath portion, and peel the hair back over the top of the quills.

Work from the inside of the skin to prevent contact with the quills.

Many who have dined on this meat consider the surprisingly large liver uncommonly toothsome and good to eat.

Porcupine is found in most forested area, watch for trees with the bark freshly stripped off fairly high above ground.



Hi Doc! Unfortunately Tularaemia is occasionally a threat is some localities, this disease comes usually when too many rabbits it kills the overflow.

Thus it is a little harder to avoid when not hunting with a firearm, for one precaution can be to shoot only the rabbits that appear to be lively & in good health.

The germs of rabbit fever are destroyed by heat, however add another safeguard by handling the animal with covered hands until the meat is thoroughly cooked.

REMEMBER that rabbit starvation exists, you need fat, a strict diet of only rabbit is not enough for survival.

Rabbits are usually easy to clean. One method you may use is commenced by pinching enough of the loose back skin to slit by shoving a knife through. Insert your fingers and tear the fragile skin apart completely around the rabbit.

Now peel back the lower half like a glove disjointing the tail when you come to it and finally cutting off each hind foot.

Do the same thing with the top section of skin loosening it finally by severing the head and 2 forepaws.

You can then as you will find out pull the animal open just below the ribs and flip out the entrails, retrieving the heart and liver.

You may also want to cut out the small waxy gland between each front leg and body.

To stop a rabbit dead on its track or course all you have to do is to whistle it will stop then shoot!


Having sealed all but one exit to the den, you set a snare above it and fanned smoke in the hole.

Fleeing, the animal runs into a noose and forked stick and the carving. Tough and gamy its flesh nevertheless satisfies gnawing appetite to a certain degree.


A site is selected on an animal trail where a tall sapling is available a few feet to one side of the track. The sapling is lopped of its branches and top and a stout cord is tied to the head.

Where the bent sapling crosses the trial tall stout pegs are driven well into the ground on either side of the tracks.

To the tops of these stakes a cross bar is securely lashed. There may be occasions when convenient trees will serve instead of stakes.

A stout cord or rope is tied to the head of the sapling and a few feet along the cord a thin strong stick is tied.

This stick should nearly reach from the crossbar to the ground. The cord from the sapling is tied a few inches below one end.

This end is placed under the crossbar and the lower end which will now pull forward strongly with the pressure of the bent sapling's spring is laid against a thin cross-stick.

The noose of the snare is lightly tied to the top cross-bar and the stakes to keep it spread open. Release is done when the animal touches either the bottom stick knocking it down, or the toggle stick with the cord.

Either action will release the holding down of the sapling and it will spring upright tightening the noose around the animal's neck.



A site is selected by examining a tree which shows the claw marks of tree climbing animals on its marks.

The "lean" of the tree is carefully examined and on the upper side of the "lean" a stout straight pole 8 to 10 feet long and at least 3 to 4 inches thick is placed to make a "path" for the animal from the ground to well up the tree trunk.

The animal will use this pole to climb the tree on its nightly excursions. Onto the upper end of the pole set a simple wire noose, fastened securely to the pole itself.

The animal in climbing or descending the pole will put its head or paw into the noose and so ensnare itself.


This log fall is suitable for ground living animals and depends for its action upon the turning or twisting of a forked bait stick.

One end of which is sharpened to a point which in turn supports the smoothly cut face of the cross bar on which the logs are lying. Select a site where the animal feed. Cut your bait stick with a widely forked prong.

The lower end should be roughly sharpened and the top end brought to a sharp point. A stout stake is sharpened and bevelled at the head so that it is nearly flat.

This stake is driven securely into the ground. The 2 or 3 heavy logs for the fall are selected and trimmed so they will lie together on the cross bar.

The cross bar is cut with a squared side at one end and the other end is trimmed off with a smoothly inclined face. The squared side is laid on the top of the bevelled stake.

The logs are laid on the cross bar and the sharpened points of the bait stick are put under the inclined cut on the end of the cross bar at such an angle that it will slip off if the bait stick is twisted.

The lower end of the bait stick rests on a chip of bark or smooth flat stone so that it will not sink into the ground. Sensitivity is adjusted by the angle of the bait stick on the cut at the end of the cross bar.


Two or three logs are secured to a cross bar as for release. The release sticks consist of a forked stick about 2 feet long for the upright a support stick about 3 feet long.

A toggle stick of 4 to 5" and a bait stick, long enough to reach from the upright stick to the lower cross bar holding the logs together.

The trap is set by standing the upright with the fork uppermost a few inches in front of the logs.

The support stick is laid over the fork and to its farthest and a cord is tied. The length of the cord should reach from the end of the support stick to the upright stick.

The end of the cord is fastened to a toggle stick and this passed around the upright. Against one end of the toggle stick the bait stick is placed so that its farther end presses against the lowest cross bar.

Release is done when an animal disturbs the bait stick, so releases the toggle, allowing the log fall to drop.

In the place of group of logs for any of these traps a platform of stakes heavily weighted with big stones may be used with equal efficiency.



It is so absolutely unsuspected and sudden that it should be only used either to guard against surprise from attack if in a country of hostile natives or if set to kill large animals. THIS TRAP IS A MAN KILLER!

A site is selected along a trail which the animal uses regularly. The site MUST have a branch of a large living tree overhanging the path.

A heavy line is thrown over the branch so that when allowed to hang free its end will lie on the path. To this line a strong rope is tied and the rope hauled up and over the branch.

To one end of the rope a heavy log is slung so that it hangs horizontally. The log is hoisted to the branch and the rope brought back so that it is concealed by the tree trunk

A toggle is tied where the rope touches the ground. At this place 2 very strong hooked stakes are driven into the ground and a release similar to any of the noose release (above) are used to hold the rope. seems prob.

To what would be the bait stick in the snare release lengths of cord or ground vines are tied for a trip cord is led through the bush parallel to the animal's path to position on either side of the place where the log will drop when it falls.

This distance can be calculated by allowing for the log to fall at the rate of 28 feet the first second, 56 = the second and 28 feet more for each further second and on. (Drag on the cord reduces the log's rate of fall to this figure.) could be prob. here

If the animal travels at three miles an hour, it moves forward 4 feet 6" a second. Thus if the log is 100 feet above the path it will take 2 1/2 seconds to fall and the animal will have moved 11 feet 6" after it has pulled the trip with its feet.

After setting this trap it should be given a test drop and if satisfactory reset only after warning people to stay off this path since this trap is a potential man killer.


AGAIN A MAN-KILLER TRAP if the bow is strong and the trap properly set, only to be used in case of emergency, Rambozo. A bow of considerable strength is made and lashed to 2 stakes driven securely into the ground.

The 2 stakes are set in 1" or so apart. At right angles to the bow and at the position where the bow string will come when the bow is drawn, a third stake is driven into the ground.

The horizontal angle between the lower end of this peg and the place where the bow is lashed to the twin peg should be such that the arrow will be given correct elevation to catch the man or animal at a vulnerable height when the trip cord is touched. The site should be at the end of a trail or path.

Release can be done by a hooked stick which has a square nick cut on the outside edge of one side and at right angles to this cut a reversed nick is cut to take the bow string. The rear peg is squared at its rear end and on one side to form a right angle.

The squared cut of the release stick engages the squared face of the stake and the thong is hooked over the undercut nick, so that the bow is held drawn back to the rear peg.

The arrow notch is in the thong. Release is done by tying the release cord at the other end of the hooked stick and leading the release cord through the grass or bush to a position at the edge of the path.

Guiding of the cord is done by means of inverted hooked sticks. At the path the release cord is tied to convenient growing material such as a wisp of grass, ground vine or casual stick stuck into the ground lightly.

An alternative release is done by deeply nicking with a square face the underside of the arrow. Into this nick a chisel edge release toggle stick is engaged.

The release stick passes in the rear of a short cross bar so that the forward pull of the bow pulls the lower end of the release stick to the rear.

This lower end is pressed against a trigger stick which is pushed against an anchor peg.

To this trigger stick the trip cord is tied and from here it is led through the bush to the path and sets as a trip cord across the path in the same manner as the hooked stick release.

REMEMBER this is a MAN-KILLER. NEVER leave it set and unguarded unless to defend yourself. Place warning signs on path.


There may be occasions when it is desired to create a diversion on one side of a path in order to frighten animals or people moving along the path away from and into an ambush.

For this purpose a thrower can be set up at a convenient distance from the path so that when a trip cord is touched the thrower will hurl a stone onto the path and so drive the animal off the path and toward the hunter.

A forked springy sapling is lashed between 2 trees as for the stabber.

The end of the sapling is forked and in the forked end a shallow pouch is woven between the forked sticks.

These forked sticks should be an angle of about 45 degrees from the horizontal towards the path.

The sapling is bent back and down and secured as for the stabber and about 4 feet short of the place where the head came when it was at rest a very stout stake is driven into the ground to act as a stop to the forward thrust.

The sapling MUST be lashed fairly high up the 2 trees and bent downwards to the securing release, so that when it is tripped the movement is upwards.

When the sapling is released and swings upwards it carries the stone in the pouch and coming suddenly to the stop the stone is thrown from the forks forward to the path.


Choose a site where 2 trees grow close together near the path the animal uses. A very springy sapling is cut and lashed between the 2 trees so that when unbent it reaches to the centre of the track.

To the end of this sapling a sharp dagger-like knife or a pointed spear of hardwood is lashed.

If wood is used MAKE SURE that it is straight grained & harden the end by scorching over fire. Sharpen to a good point.

The sapling is bent back as far as your strength will permit and note where the bent back of the sapling comes to above the ground. A few feet back from this point set the sticks for the release given in the snare seen above.

To the bait stick of this release tie the trip cord and run this along the ground to the position at which the bent sapling came when the head was straight over the path. The trip here should be very light and raised a few inches above the ground.

The animal passing along the trap in either direction releases the trip and the sapling is released with the spear.


A double-ended pen with self-locking doors. This strong pen of the size required is made with both ends left open.

The pen is completely roofed over and in the centre one of the cross stick across the roof is squared on one side and on its under surface. The cross pieces at the extreme ends are secured extra strongly to take 2 drop doors.

A couple inch beyond the line of the side walls and about 3 inches from the end uprights very strong stakes are driven into the ground at an angle leaning away from the line of the pen.

The 2 doors are made and hinged with loops of rope or strong vine to the end crossbars, across either end of the pen. On the outside 2 supports sticks are crossed about 7" to 10" above the roof of the pen.

The release sticks are sharpened at one end to a chisel edge and the bait stick is cut with a squared step about 18" below its top. (The square face at the lower end.)

10" to 12" above this and parallel to the first cut, 2 square-nicked cuts are made with the squared face on the top side of the cut.

The trap is set by putting the bait stick between the crossbars and engaging the squared cut of the bait stick with the squared face of the crossbar.

The chisel end of one of the release sticks is placed in one of the top nicks of the baited stick and the other end between 2 of the crossbars of the door. The release stick sits on the support sticks as a fulcrum. This is repeated at the other door.

Both doors are now raised and any disturbance of the bait stick will release the support sticks and the doors will drop.

The locking device is done by cutting 2 heavy poles about 8" to 10" longer than the trap is wide.

These are laid across the top end of either door. When the door starts to drop the logs roll down the falling doors and jam against the outward leaning stakes thus wedging the doors tight.



A box is made exactly similar to the box trap on the page. A hole is bored in the roof 3 inches from the closed-in end. The one below this, is another eye, and the hooked portion for the bait some 8 or 10 inches below this lower eye.

With this release the cross wire is placed through the lower eye, with the top eye above the roof of the box.

The bait is fastened to the hook inside the box and the release wire secure with its own eye to the top eye and its farther end lying long ways along the roof with the end itself in a small hole through the bottom of the drop door, and in such a position that it holds the door up.

When the animal takes the bait and drags backward with it, the top end of the bait wire is forced to the rear, and so withdraws the wire at the door from the hole and allows the door to stop, imprisoning the animal.



A stout box of a size suitable for the animal to be trapped is made. To one end a sliding door is fitted.

This door MUST slide up and down easily between 2 grooves. On the inside of the door and near the lower end a small hole is bored for about 1/4 inch in depth.

On the roof of the box, about 3 inches from the closed-in end, a hole about 1 inch diameter is bored right through the wood.

The release mechanism is made by taking a piece of stiff wire (8) gauge, bending an eye in it at the end, an another eye at about 6 inches lower down.

And immediately below this lower eye bending the wire in a wide hook and cutting it off at the end of the hook through the top eye another short piece of wire is passed.

(With the eye in the centre of the hole in the roof) and the short piece of wire lying parallel to the end of the box, it is secured in position with a staple at either end.

Another piece of wire is fastened to the lower eye now inside the box. This piece of wire MUST be just as long that when the hook is slightly forward.

The piece of wire will engage in the hole which was bored in a short distance in the foot of the door. The trap is baited by securing the bait to the U-shaped hook on the lower end of the wire inside the trap.

The free end of the inner piece of wire is placed inside the hole at the lower end of the door. When the animal disturbs the bait the wire holding the door is withdrawn, and the door drops imprisoning the animal.



There are occasions when a piece of wire may be unobtainable the this internal stick release can be improvised.

The box is made as for the preceding portable box traps, complete with sliding door. For the release 3 forked sticks are used with the bait stick, which should have a fork at one end.

The length of the 3 forked stick should be such that 2 of them are equal & about 3/4 quarters the height of the inside of the box, and the third should be about 1/2 the height.

The fork a the end of the bait stick is so trimmed that one end of the fork is about an 1 inch shorter that the other.

Setting is done by placing the bottom of the door on the longer of the 2 arms of the fork bait stick with the shorter arm in the inside of the door.

The 2 longer forks are set near the end of the box, their forks holding the far end of the bait stick a few inches from its very end.

The shorter forked stick is placed with its fork over the farthest end of the bait stick, and its other end against the roof.

The bait is secured to the bait stick, near the first pair of fork. When the animal takes the bait, it either disturbs the setting of the forked sticks which hold the slide door up, or it pushes the forked end of the bait stick inwards & allows the door to drop.


A pen of adequate size is made. The pen is built with two sides and one end only across the closed end a strong cross bar is made and secured.

Release of the log weighted roof is by means of toggle and bait stick almost exactly similar to the toggle release of the log fall.

A forked stick is stood upright a few inches from one side of the trap at the open end. Across the fork a supporting stick is placed with the end of the roof resting on it.

To the far end of this supporting stick a length of cord is fastened and to the end of this a short toggle stick is tied.

The end of the toggle stick is pressed against the bait stick, which in turns is pressed against the bait stick, which in turn is pressed against the stakes opposite and at the far end of the pen.

Disturbance of the bait stick releases its engagement with the toggle stick which in turn releases the support stick and the door falls heavily. Ouch! Imprisoning the animal..


Trap which is secured by 2 pegs knocked into a tree with a third peg under their ends held in position by the pull of the heavy wooden pole.

When the game runs into the noose the peg is pulled out and the pole drops, tightening the noose by its weight.




A cage either of sticks lashed to a pyramidal or other suitable shape of box wood or netting is made of adequate size.

Release is made by means of the figure 4 release. This an excellent trap for ground feeding birds & if the ground is baited with grain or small fruits it is a certain trap for pigeons.

The upright stick is cut with a chisel edge at one end, and where it will cross the top of the upright, a nick is cut parallel to the chisel edge.

The bait stick has a nick undercut at the thickest end, and at the place where it will cross the upright it has a cut made with a square faced a the end of the cut farthest from the undercut nick.

Setting is done by standing the upright in front of the trap and placing the support stick with its nick on the chisel edge of the upright and the upper end supporting the raised edge of the box.

The chisel end of the support stick is placed in the undercut nick at the end of the bait stick.

The squared cut in the bait stick should now engage with a squared face of the support stick and with the baited end of the stick well under the trap.


One can improvise a bola a missile weapon consisting of stones attached to the ends of thongs.

The Spanish and Eskimos use a device of this type also consisting of several cords about a yard long with a small weight at the extremity of each.

The BOLA is grasped at the centre from which all cords radiate and the weights are twirled above the head.

Twirled at flying birds the spinning strings often twist around one or more and bring them to the grounds.


A weapon that Eskimos use against birds. Stones are wrapped in circles of material and 90cm (3 feet) lengths of string knotted around each, the other ends of the string being firmly tied together.

Held at the joined end they are twirled around the head. When released they fly through the air covering a wide area.

The Gauchos of South America use the same weapon and variations have been used in combat.

The bola wraps around a bird in flight or tangles around an animal's leg or neck, bringing it to the ground and giving the hunter a chance to kill it.


ALL BIRDS ARE GOOD TO EAT. When they are moulting and unable to fly, it is not difficult to corner them on foot.

Large flocks may be also captured occasionally by driving them into nets or traps. Roosting or nesting birds can be secured by a noose fastened to the end of a pole.

Birds can also be caught in fine snares placed where they nest, feed or congregate. Dead-fall immobilise them too. You bait them either with flesh or grains. Even the riper eggs or any eggs it may be possible to secure are nourishing.

If one has a continue access to a large colony at nesting time one way to be assured of fresh eggs is to mark whatever is already in the nest perhaps removing all but a few if conditions seem to justify it.


This traps also work well with birds. A stick fence put up in a narrowing spiral and baited will sometimes catch in its centre fowl such as quail.

Geese can be bagged in a ditch some four feet deep into which they are led by bait such as wild grain.

When one rushes suddenly at the geese, they try to fly but are unable to spread their wings. Go slowly then kill fast.

Turkeys are also taken by the use of bait one ruse consisting of attracting them head down under a low fence.

Once turkeys so pen themselves and upon finishing their pecking raise their long necks it often takes them too long a time to figure how to react. (Too bad!).



Gulls and other scavenger birds can be easily although unpleasantly caught by a man who is desperate enough for food.

A short stick of bone sharpened at both ends is secured in the middle by a line, preferably tied to something limber such as a sapling and is then concealed in some bait such as a decomposed fish.

This also work for WOLVES but the trick is to use a pliable bone and bend it as much as possible then tie it together, a small incision in the 3/4 part would help to secure the line so it does not slip.

Once the wolf gobbles up this good size meatball, the bone once in the intestine will spring open and perforate the innards of the wolves thus kill him. But this would be to get rid of him since he will not die fast.


An ancient way for capturing ducks and one which can be varied almost indefinitely to fit the circumstances is set in motion by the tossing of dozens of gourds into a lake.

The water fowl will become accustomed to them by the time you stole in the water head hidden in the gourd which has been perforated to permit seeing and breathing.

The hunter advances slowly toward a flock at about the same speed with which the shell might drift. Starting at the outside, you pull ducks quickly downward by their feet twist their neck and shove them one by one into a bag at your side.


Game birds such as Ptarmigan and Grouse, promise feasts for anybody lost in the wilderness especially as a few stones or sticks are often the only weapons needed.

If one misses the first time such fowl usually will afford a second and even a third try.

When they fly they usually go only but a short distance and may be successfully followed particularly if this is done casually and at such a tangent that it would seem that one were going to stroll on past.


The only difference is that some are tenderer, plummer and to different taste better flavoured then others.


A stake is set either on a stone or some place where it will lie flat and secure even upon a floating tree if big enough will do.

You attach to it one of those big mouse traps and the bird in taking the bait, springs the trap which cuts into its skull killing it instantly.


For killing pheasants, pigeons and grass eating birds (turkey chicken) is to soak split peas and then put thin wire through them, leaving about 1/2 inch of wire projected from either side of the peas.

The birds pick up the peas. The wire pierces their crops and they die quickly. This is also illegal, only use it in Survival.


Grouse and Partridge are most often found roosting in thickets, sunning on side slopes or feeding on the ground.

Usually these birds will not fly very far when frightened and therefore it is better to flush them out, wait for them to land before shooting them.

If their roosting area can be found they are snared easily by using a pole with a wire noose attached to the end.

Be certain and take the partridge closest to you. This way you will not frighten the others.

Spruce Grouse Ptarmigan in the Arctic frequently remain motionless thereby seeking to avoid detection. Some may be killed by throwing sticks and rocks.


Birds such as Ducks, Geese and Coots are usually more difficult to approach than upland game. They can be shot taking into consideration the way the wind and current will take them.

If Geese or Ducks are found during the moulting period it may be possible to run them to the ground. Don't overlook the eggs or the very young.


But do not waste ammo for little gain. Use the snares shown above for birds or this new one: which is quite effective in capturing many of these smaller birds.


For the bird to obtain bait it MUST land on the perch which is held in place by tension of the knot. Weight of the bird releases the tension on the knot and the weight on the side of the post pulls the snare tight on the birds legs.


A straight stick 3 to 4 feet long is selected. Onto this many fine nooses, each between 1/2" to 1" in size of horse hair are tied securely and the stick is then tied with the nooses uppermost to a shrub or small tree which is a favourite resting place for small birds.

They alight on the stick and their feet become entangled in the snares. One or 2 birds so caught will call others to them and in a short time 7 or 8 birds will all be snared on the noose stick. BBQ time. This snare is illegal.


A fine net stretched between the trees where birds usually roost is one of the simplest ways of catching them. Instead of a net, fine twine cris-crossed between trees across their flight path will damage birds which fly into it.


Liming is an ancient way of catching small birds. Boil holly leaves and any starchy grain in water and simmer until you have a gooey mess.

Spread this on the branches or other perching places before the birds come home to roost and they will get stuck in it when they alight.


Hang a line of snares across a stream a little above water lever. This works best when set among reeds & rushes.


Fish hooks buried in fruit or other food can be an effective way of catching birds. The hook gets caught in the bird's throat.


Tie many fine nooses 1.25 - 2.5cm (1/2-1 in) in diameter, close together along a stick or a branch, use horsehair preferably by any strong material will do.

Place the stick in a favourite roosting or nesting spot with the nooses uppermost. Birds become entangled when they alight. Do not remove as soon as on bird is caught. It will attract other birds and you will soon have several.


This mechanism (see fig. 4 dead-fall) can be used with a log cabin type cage, made from a pyramid of sticks tied together, which is balanced over the bait. For small birds you can use a quick method of making the cage.


Lay all the sticks in position then lay another two sticks, the same length as the bottom ones, on top and tie them tightly to the bottom layer, tight enough to keel all the others in place.

Larger animals will soon break out of this and for them each stick MUST be individually tied in.

Experiment with different ways of making a cage. You may have a suitable box or large tin which would do just as well. It is also possible to prop the raised edge of the cage on a single stick tied to a long line.

Take the other end of the line and hide some distance away. If you hold the string tight, you can snatch the prop away as soon as bird ventures under the cage. Bingo! Broadcast bait around and under the cage. This works best in areas where birds seem plentiful.


A net laid on the ground and baited to attract birds has lines from the corners to a springy sapling overhead.

A tension line extends to a toggle mechanism (see previous trap) notched on to a horizontal bar and operated by a flat bait stick. Set the bait stick off the ground & only just resting against the lower end of the toggle.

This trigger mechanism needs to be extremely sensitive if a small bird's weight is to set it off.

Bait scattered across the net will attract birds which will be caught when one steps on the bait bar.


If you set traps in a training exercise MAKE SURE that they are clearly marked so that they are not set off by other people.

Spear and dead-fall traps should be supervised to keep people away for they could inflict serious injury or kill. ALL traps should be dismantles when the exercise is over.



A noose attached to a long pole is an effective way of pulling roosting birds down from lower branches.

Make a note of roosting and nest sites- REMEMBER that droppings will help guide you to them and if they are within reach return stealthily on nights when there's sufficient light to see them.

Slip the noose over the bird and pull, tightening the noose and pulling the bird down at the same time.


You can get close by getting in the water and camouflaging yourself around the head with reeds and other vegetation.

Very cautiously, approach an area where fowl nest or birds are regularly seen. But REMEMBER that birds especially large ones such as geese and swans can be quite ferocious in defence of themselves.


In some parts of the world is to use a large gourd worn on the head as cover. Holes are made on one side to breathe and see through & with the gourd just sufficiently above the water the hunter floats with the current among the birds.

To prepare the birds several other gourds are thrown into the river first. Having got among the wildfowl the hunter grabs the unsuspecting birds from below and strangles them underwater.


Find or dig a hole about 90cm (3 feet) deep in an area where ground-feeding birds are common. Its width depends upon the kind of birds you are after.

Spread grain or other bait around the hole and much more inside it. First taking the bait around the hole, birds will enter it to get more. Rush them.

In their panic they are unable to spread their wings sufficiently to take off inside the hole.


Seagulls can be caught by wrapping food around a stone and throwing into the air. The gulf swallows the bait while still on the wing.

Gulping down the stone with it & the change in weight causes the bird to crash.

Obviously this is a technique for use over land rather than at sea. Be ready to dispatch the bird as soon as it hits the ground.


Here is how the Roman used to do it. Going into the swamp he would leave his slingshot behind since there would not be any room for free movement of the arm.

He would go into the thickets of the reeds all tawny at the bottom but lush and green at the tops not forgetting to hiss a little to warn the snakes of his coming since they will be warned thus will not strike at him unless taken by surprise.

The Centurion will then easily also hear little rustles and scurrying which told him of reptiles & mammals moving aside to let him by.

When he was close to the river he would start to tie the tops of the reeds together so as to form an entanglement in the form of a semicircle among them.

Then he would cut a section of dry reed which he splits down the middle several times.

This done, he moved away from his bird trap toward the roadway and then stops into a place which would put him above the arc of the netting that he had tied in the reeds and outside of it. Then he would shout and start to wave the split cane vigorously.

This produced a brisk clacking sound and there would be a flurry and whirring of wings around him as frightened birds rose and flew down to safety of the river.

Some birds would then fly straight into the entanglement of the reeds which he had made and by this method he would secure easily 4 to 5 ducks or herons all of which had their necks broken flying into the reeds.


1) Walk as quietly as possible.

2) Look around.

3) Move slowly, stop frequently and listen.

4) Hunt upwind or cross-wind wherever possible.

5) Blend with terrain features as much as possible, do not stand against the skyline or break from cover without thorough observation.

6) Be prepared! Game frequently startles the hunter or catches him off guard.




See the start of this file "Watch for" as well for added information.




Search the terrain in all directions preferably with a binocular which you should have with you especially the hunters or survivors.

Trial hunts reveal that "citizen" chances of stumbling upon game are pretty remote & that they will have to go out to spot it before they are spotted first.


To hunt games, you MUST observe them, they are creatures of habits, they leave traces which you can follow.

Each day they go to the same places, as well as to their water points invariably. Some animals ALWAYS use the same path.

Since their hearing and sight is sharp, REMEMBER before shooting not to move & with the sun in the back, the animal won't see you but you will see him better.

Also CHECK THE WIND so that it blows toward you, otherwise they will smell a rat (You?)

In MOUNTAIN, hunt from the height, animals are not used to be taken by surprise coming from above.


Than they are in reality when the terrain is accidented or rough. If there are shadows or fog, also at sunset the object observed is hard to see lacking contrast, or because we are too low or hot.


Than they are if: the terrain is flat, or weather is real clear (after rain or storm), or just before and just after the sunset or if you observe over a water area.

Or if there is a colour contrast between the object under observation and the background or when we observe from a high point, or above a valley or if snow.

Now the quick evaluation of distance is not the only habit to acquire but also to learn to estimate in one quick look the surfaces & quantities to evaluate weight and time. see measuring file more info


This mysterious old art of hunting recommended so highly by old hunters is a hard one to perfect. Yet is one of the best way to learn the woods and see the animals.

It consists of obviously, sitting on a log. But not just for a full minute's rest, nor on just any old log. Once you learn how to spot an animal runaway, choose a log a couple feet from it.

If you're just starting to learn the woods, pick a log close to a stream, or an inlet on bog pond. In either case, take a pair of binoculars if you have them.

Sit yourself down-for a couple of hours. Don't smoke, don't make any noise and move as little as possible.

Simply look around. Traditionally 4 o'clock or so is tea time for many animals which would be unseen a thousand yards away in the bush if you were strolling along, will sometimes walk by only a couple of body lengths from you.

Their sense of smell and sight and sound are as keen as ever. But somehow they refuse to believe that a human being can sit still like a bump on a log, and indeed most of us can't do it any more.

Keep practising. As you do, look about you, watch the leaves in action, the insects, the birds, the movement of the wind. Smell the damp earth, the pine needles.

If you sit by the side of a young mushroom for the better part of a dewy night which is surely the ultimate test in log sitting endurance, you can actually see it growing.


The mainstay of the survivor particularly if he has no rifle will likely be small animals and birds. They are well distributed through the Canadian hinterland & can be taken without firearms


Most of the large game animals are abroad at Dawn and toward Evening.


If they become lost they will have all day to find their way back to camp. If you are fortunate to obtain a game you have the rest of the day to dress it & begin the preservation of the meat.

REMEMBER to move your camp to the kill and not the kill to the camp.


Big game will provide food for a prolonged period but it requires a suitable gun, skill and a large amount of energy and some means of preserving.


If you want to hunt near your home, you first MUST study you ground toward end of summer and start of spring.

And once you decided where you will lay your traps prepare the ground so that the animals get use to the change before the hunting season start.

Disturb as little as possible the area where you want to place your snare or traps, animals are suspicious, so leave it as natural as possible and MAKE SURE your traps are VERY WELL ANCHORED.


The advantage is that is requires little energy but a lot of patience, and it is an excellent way to hunt if you have chosen well your area by studying it carefully!

It is good for jacking and if you stay immobile in the upper area of prairies, game trails preferably against the wind in the sector you have chosen to hunt.


One trick that some hunter use is to climb a tree and using a fork branch they install a box to sit on to wait, but under the box they have put an oil lamp (Coleman style) which gives them heat through some holes that they have chisel or dug in the box.



It MUST not be wasted but kept like gold. To eat flesh without any fat for ex. Rabbit will kill you just as not to eat anything, you need fat. How much do you need fat, eat it till you don't want any more.


Using nylon or synthetics clothing which are very comfortable yet totaly useless for hunting because of the noise they make. They are to the game what a orchestra is to the auditor = too noisy.


Or what of the fact that ones ventures in the wood without a map of the area or a compass and to know how to use it or full of Gin but little wisdom and knowledge in case of accidents.

Also one has to check on what is best to bring along and what to wear since a lot of time there is cold spell and rain along.

All excursion MUST be prepared in order to avoid troubles or to fix it if anything goes wrong then it is too late if not ready.

ALWAYS take in consideration the weather factor, not of the day but of the coming days of your future trip. Think you are the next Columbus or some famous explorer thus get ready Tarzan.

MAKE SURE THE ANIMAL IS DEAD BEFORE HANDLING IT. You could be surprised by its appearance. Poke a stick in the eye will tell you for sure if it is dead. If not; well do kill it quickly.


Hunting is usually Much More Efficient Early at Sunrise or at sunset when the animal go to drink or to eat.


In order to help you hunting them with less difficulties:

1) Caribou & Reindeer are usually real curious and one can attract them to rifle range by agitating a cloth and by walking on all four toward them.

2) The same method will also work for Wolf.

3) The moose usually stays in deep marsh, the female watches the young and the male is their season can attack or charge you. OOPS's!

In WINTER one can climb a tree and spot a moose just by the steam that his body gives will tell of his presence.

4) It is not easy to approach mountain goat or #mouflon# for they are nervous & suspicious. To surprise them you MUST climb on the heights and come down without noise, against the wind while they eat with their head down.

5) The trails of #boeuf musque# are usually filled with dung. When they are worried they gather together. If you approach them at this stage they can feign to attack you.

6) Bears are harsh and unpredictable. A wounded bear is extremely dangerous, you MUST not go after it.

The Polar Bear has an exceptional eyesight and strong sense of smell. It will pursue and attack man!

7) When the rabbit is scared he goes in circle and comes back to its starting point. To stop it dead on its course, you just have to whistle. Easy to catch with snare.


NEVER leave your tent without shutting it tightly for in your absence during the day the squirrels etc. can cause you much troubles, if they find an opening in your tent.

Specially if you are far from town and your food is limited. The tent containing your provisions MUST be well closed and tightly secured and left in a shadowy place, NEVER under the sun.


A hunter who wants to succeed MUST be prepared. First by training in shooting fast and accurately.

Whether he hunts with a bow or a gun he MUST practice as much as possible and in all conditions. Even the hunter with the fastest reflex, and steel nerves can not shoot well without proper training.

He MUST also be in the best possible shape for hunting is not a relax job. To carry a 200 pounds deer takes more work than you think, and many overweight hunters have died of heart attack while tackling the job.


To shoot well with a gun or arrow one MUST have more than good eyesight but he MUST also be able to apreciate the distances.

Thus you MUST practice to hit the target at 50-100-200 or 300 feet so as to well educate your reflexes at variable distances.

And in the forest the perspectives are different. This is why a preliminary training will reap benefits.

So train yourself well in estimating distances. For ex. locate a tree or rock and evaluate the distance then go and measure it.

You will find that your numerous errors will teach you how difficult it is. Only good training in evaluation will teach Rambozo this fine art.

To help you in this appreciation of distances carried in different conditions learn to memorise standard distances to as to use them later.

Measure different distances and imagine what they would look like carried in the forest or on a lake.

With enough practice you will become good at it. It is also good to REMEMBER that a pale object with a dark background.

For ex. a deer in front of a pine hill will look even paler thus closer than it is in reality, but the same deer on the snow will look darker thus farther than in reality.

Hunting in a canoe is a very effective way to develop your vision. Since every thing moves so fast you MUST learn to sweep the horizon continually in order to maintain good vision.


If you keep your gaze steady in one place the object seen becomes blurry, so keep your eyes roving and sweep the horizon like a radar.

If the eyes are kept too long on the same spot or without blinking they get tired fast and loose their sharpness. So move your eyes to keep them sensitive.

The circular movement of sight MUST be quick & precise. Check carefully all the terrain and then come back to some precise point, but AVOID STARRING TOO LONG.

Try to recognise the objects as far away as possible. Sweep in one direction then reverse the procedure.

Normally your eyes will scan faster from left to right and be slower from right to left this can be use to better check an area which seems important.


Suppose you are spotting the deer afar off, is the branch nearby behind or ahead of the deer?

Move your head slowly, if the branch moves in opposite direction then it is forward ahead, whereas the far away objects move in the same direction that the moving of the head.

Early in the morning, with lesser light or at sunset the object appear smaller.


At night protect your sight form any light which will kill your eyesight.

For ex. if you light your cigarette at night your night vision will be lost for at least 5 minutes up to 15 minutes.

You MUST give your eyes a time to adjust to night vision. To discover an object darken by night look beside the place where your think the object is. Look at about 5 degrees beside and it will appear much clearer.



It is difficult to distinguish anything in a dark central mass but the edges show more clearly and in poor light objects at the edges of your vision are often seen more distinctly.

Once the eyes get accustomed to the dark, more and more is seen as "night vision" is acquired.


Once this is achieved the eyes MUST be protected from bright light or the night vision will be impaired for quite a while.

If there is an unavoidable reason for having to use a light, COVER ONE EYE so that the vision in that eye at least will be retained.

If for instance,you need to consult a map, a red filter over a torch will help you retain your night vision.

REMEMBER also that the night observation needs some precautions like the fact of lighting a match or to activate a flashlight will knock out your eye power for at least 15 minutes.

At night it is also good to use your ears to rest a bit your eyesight by not only closing your eyes but also by lightly posing your hands over your eyes without applying any pressure.


Sweep the horizon from left to right and then right to left. This is the first principle of good vision.


It is of NO USE to walk for miles and miles to see something while hunting, YOU MUST WALK VERY LITTLE, LISTEN A LOT AND OBSERVE VERY CAREFULLY. THE MORE YOU WALK THE LESS YOU OBSERVE.

BINOCULARS: if short copy it here too

This very important item is discussed in Fishing file both for day and night use and handmade ones.


On an open hill side a little more than 1 mile away is a bear gorging himself on katoon, but although visibility is as good as one can expect where mountains rise in high wilderness, the berry bushes will camouflaged the bear so well that even knowing where he is you will still not be able to make him out without the telescope.

The point is that when binoculars & other such glasses are fully CAPITALized upon, they are surpassed only by the firearm itself in importance in the matter of securing game vital for survival.

If knocking down a meat animal can mean the difference between life and death and particularly if your own life is not the only one so dependent you're going to attempt a needlessly dramatic offhand shot.

The same principle holds true in spy glassing the country for game. You'll find yourself holding the glasses as steadily as possible.

Utilizing any available support, sitting if you can and even sprawling prone with the lenses resting on a log if afforded that opportunity.

An area as one soon appreciates is best scrutinized section by section by overlapped section. Any object that may conceivably be some part of an animal is patiently watched for minutes for any sing of movement.

Even if none is distinguished before shifting the field of vision you will probably fix that particular spot in mind so as to study it later to see if any detail has changed.

You will get the habit likely as not, of carefully scanning game trails for as far as you can see them.

You will give particular notice to the types of cover where you know an animal may lying & to the particular vegetation on which your are aware one may be feeding.

Shores as everyone knows are especially well travel while in the water itself you too have perhaps more than one spotted moose dipping heads to uproot lily pad or have spied on bears and even mountain goat swimming.


We will surprise number of readers by stating that the effectiveness is much more considerable by moonlight or star lite even really weak or dim than when the sun is really high.

At night there is a clearness difference much more appreciable between a detail observed with the naked eye or with binoculars than when the same observation is made during the day.

Between the sunrise and sunset the binocular will permit to precise details already perceived whereas in half darkness it will give the advantage to discover what the naked eye was incapable to suspect.


Easy to make and cheap to boot. Try this experience at night when frost or the moon creates all kind of imaginary things by using cardboard binocular which are a kind of twin tunnels which the #tranche posterior matches the face relief#.

This way the eyes will escape the lateral rays and their sensitivity will be kept for the useful rays.

A bit like someone deep in a tunnel shaft can see stars during the day. So the eyes are thus guaranty to be free to a large extent of the usual illusions made through nightly observations.

(Apparent movement of immobile objects, imaginary shapes, confusion between near and far objects etc.)

Beside the fact that this man made instrument is far from being perfect it will permit to distinguish a full range of things which the naked eye was not able to analyze nor isolate.

During the day they will be of a greater advantage than just using the hand over the eyes to protect the sight.


If you hunt in the bush you will find that going bare foot makes you less noisy and that shorts are better than long pants but then again this depends of the weather conditions and climate which you happen to be in.

If you have the choice then go hunting with as little clothes as possible so as to make as little noise as possible. Cover your body with clay to ward off the bugs and to camouflage yourself.


At night stay as much as possible in the #bas-fond#, ditches, as low a profile as you can so as to stay in the shadow. You will then see the enemy or prey coming up enlighten by the sky above.

If you want to move without being seen specially at night REMEMBER to walk without noise.

And to do so a good hunter ALWAYS walks lightly by putting his toes first to the ground and not the heel.

This specially applies where there are twigs and rocks, dry leaves. Practice walking by putting your toes to the ground rather than the heel & do this in all occasion until it becomes a habit.

Walk as lightly as possible as a cat, you will not get as tired as those who walk heavily thinking to impress anyone by their tank walk.


Keen observation of all signs of wildlife and a knowledge of the kind of animals you are hunting are as necessary to the hunter as skilful tracking and accurate marksmanship.

They make it easier to be in the right place and to take advantage of the terrain.


Move slowly and stop regularly. Carry your weight on the rear foot so that you can test the next step with the toes before transferring your weight.

Thus you will avoid stumbles and help to reduce the amount of noise you produce from undergrowth and snapping sticks. FAST or sudden movement will startle the game.



THE IDEAL TIME TO HUNT IS AT FIRTS LIGHT, when more game is likely to be about. Animals are also about in the evening.

But the light will be getting rapidly worse so you need to be sure of the terrain and know your way back to camp.

In territory you know well this will not be a problem, particularly if there is a clear sky & moon or starlight to see by.

If hunting in the evening go out at least an hour before dusk so that your eyes will get used to the failing light & you will develop night vision though your prey will probably be able to see better than you do.


When hunting during the day, try to hunt moving uphill in the morning and return to camp in the afternoon.

Signs of animals will be easier to read as you move uphill for those on the ground will be closer to eye-level.

Thermal currants build up with the heat of the day and carry scents upwards- so by returning downhill the scent off game comes up to you before your smell reaches it.

After a day out hunting and foraging the descent will take less energy than an upward climbing & by then you will welcome the easier going.

If you are moving correctly, game often will not see you. If an animal catches a glimpse of you, FREEZE.

You may be the fist human it has seen. It will be more curious than frightened. Keep absolutely still until the animal looks away or continues feeding.

AVOID large animals, such as bears, unless really desperate or confident of a first shot kill- or you could end up becoming the hunted not the hunter.

Get as close as you can without revealing your presence and take a steady position, aiming for the area giving the greatest margin for error.

An accurate head shot is very effective but risky unless you are very close and the animal still. A point just to the back of the front shoulder is a good target.

A firm, accurate strike here will drop most animals instantly. A badly aimed shot may mean unnecessary agony for the animal and a long follow up for the hunter even a possible loss.


If an animal drops first shot, WAIT 5 minutes before approaching. Just stand back and observe.

If not dead but bleeding, the loss of blood will weaken it and, when you do approach, it will not be able to bolt.

If an animal is wounded and moves away Wait 15 minutes before following up. If you follow immediately the animal will travel all day & you will loose it.


At Fall when travelling in canoe looking to hunt a moose it is best to stay about 20 feet from the shore lake it is much more lucky to do it this way then being too close.

Also you increase your chances when all is calm specially at night around 2 hours before sunset.


The best one that just came out a few years ago is made by the Rapid Roll Inc. extremely safe, quick and easy to use; not only to carry your gun but to shoot with without endearing your manoeuvre.

Made from 84 inches of nylon without seam and with a 4,000 lbs stress, good even under 70 degrees below zero and absorbing only 5% of water when wet can be used to many other purposes.

It has taken 100 years to come out with the perfect gunsling, so give it a good look before rejecting such a good deal. US Pat 3495770. (No paid advertising!).


All animals provide skins. Their condition will depend on how carefully they were removed, the way the animal was killed, the age of the animal and time of year.

Common defects are due to parasites, diseases, malnutrition and scars from fight injuries. Snakes, lizards, crocodiles & other reptiles all provide excellent skins. So do large birds such as Ostriches.

Some aquatic mammals, seals, and their relations are fur-bearing, like land mammals and the whales and dolphins have strong hides. Shark also have a hide instead of scales like most other fishes. Birds can be skinned with the feathers attached and used to make warm clothing or bed covers.

Skin is a source of food and in circumstances of acute shortage can be eaten, even after having been preserved and used for clothing, but it is very tough and takes a lot of digesting.

There are cases of people surviving by eating their boots, though it should be emphasised that in all such cases plentiful water was available.

Skins & hides are composed of water and proteins and decay quickly if they are not specially treated to preserve them.

How they are treated will depend upon whether you want to retain the hair or fur, but the initial stages will be the same in both.

To make moccasins, laces, shelters, thongs, water bags or canoes, the hair is removed but for warm clothing, bedding or good insulating groundsheet it should be left on.

Properly prepared skins will be supple, yet strong and resist tearing, abrasions, deformation or stretching. They are comfortable to wear, with good thermal insulation, but permeable to air and water vapour. More on this in Skinning file


Since your ammunition will eventually disappear if you have any for that matter, then consider this alternative by making yourself a hunting shaft.

Even a long root in the river can be used for that. Take one root about 2.50 m. long and dry it slowly over the fire and turning it around so that it stays straight.

It will take you even up to 2 days in that case of a root but then it is worth it. It will be very strong even though a bit flexible.

Once you have found animal tracks going under a tree you only have to climb over into the branches and when the animal goes under you jump on it and pierce the animal with the shaft as you are (bunjy?) jumping.


If somehow snow or mud got into it, remove as much of it as possible then using a cartridge without its powder and bullet but still with the firing cap you then fire the gun. The blast from the cap will clean the barrel of all foreign objects even UFO?


The army came with the conclusion that it was a 22 rifle, their type included in their survival kit is the collapsible type, meaning the barrel goes into the stock.

But this is for an overall survival, if you have means to choose beside bazooka and stinger etc, then your best survival weapon is a flat hard shooting rifle which is rugged, accurate and durable.

A shotgun is no fit substitute nor any handgun. Although it is true that something could be saved by procuring a carbine instead of a rifle, the extra weight and length would seem to be entirely justified by the increase in potential accuracy

As a matter of fact it would be hard to begrudge the additional few once of a good telescopic sight if only because of the often vital minutes one adds to the most productive hunting periods of every day.

You will probably want to include a light sling such as a Whelen or Rapid Roll if only for purposes of carrying.

As for ammo for several evident reasons you will want one shot to do the job wheNEVER possible. You are therefore apt to prefer the explosive effect of a high velocity hollow point cartridge.


The basic problem is different however in country such as the interior of Panama where there is abundant small game but little or no big game animals. In such a region a functional weapon for living off the country is a rifle for a load like a .22 Hornet.

If one wants to diversify this ammo so as to be in a position to destroy a minimum of meat, he could also carry an amount of reduced loads having similar ballistics to those of the .22 long rifle cartridge.


Suppose 2 or 3 of you each has an individual choice of survival weapons.

Should one select a revolver, another a scatter gun and the third the flat shooting and hard bitting rifle.? Some such diversification at first thought would not seem unreasonable.

However the same objections to handguns and shotguns would still prevail. The probability of success would be greater if all had a rifle apiece, enabling them to spread out and hunt separately.

These rifles should all be identical so that the parts of one or even 2 can be used to repair the third.


Most effective of improvised weapons, the bow and arrow is easy to make. It takes only a short time to become confident in its use. (David?).

For the bow a well seasoned wood is best but you will have to make do without. If you expect to have to stay where you are for many months you could put aside to season for future use.

The tension in unseasoned wood is short lived so make several bows and change over to another weapon when the one you are using looses its spring. #Yew# = the ideal wood.

All the old English longbows were made of Yew. There are 5 kind of Yew distributed across the Northern hemisphere but it is not very common & Hickory, Juniper, Oak, White Elm, Cedar, Birch, Ironwood, Willow and Hemlock are all good alternatives.


For your bow stave select a supple wand. It should be about 120cm (4 feet) long but match its size to the individual.

To determine the correct length for you. Hold one end of the stave at the hip with the right hand, reach out sideways with the left hand and mark the extent of your reach as the length of the bow. This will give you a standard type bow. The longbow requires much more skill in use.


Fashion the stave so that it is 5cm (2in) wide at the centre, tapering to 1.5cm (5/8in) at the ends. Notch the ends (A) to take the bowstring about 1.25cm (1/2in) from the ends.

Remove the bark if you choose. When the bow has been whittled into shape rub it all over with oil or animal fat.


A rawhide string is best, cut to a width of 3mm (1/8in.) but any string, cord or thin rope will do.

The stems of old nettles provide tough fibres and these can be twisted together to make a satisfactory bowstring.

If the bow has a lot of give a shorter string is likely needed, but when strung the string should only be under slight tension.

The main tension is added when you pull back to shoot. Secure the string to the bow with a round turn and two half hitches at each end.

If the wood is unseasoned release one end of the string wheNEVER the bow is not in use to relax the tension or you may find the stave sets in shape.

A properly made bow will be more efficient and more accurate than just bending a pliable wand-but once it loses its spring don't waste time with it. Make another.


Any straight wood will do for arrows, but birch is one of the best. Make arrows about 60cm (2 feet) long and about 6mm (1/4in) wide.

Keep them straight. (A piece of string tied between two points will give you a straight edge to check them against.) And as smooth as possible.

At one end make a notch 6mm (1/4in) deep to fit the bow string. Check the notch in the end of each arrow is wide enough to fit over your bowstring.


To increase accuracy arrows should be flighted. Feathers make the best flights but other material can be used: paper, light cloth or even leaves trimmed to shape.

(A) split feathers, starting from the top, down centre of quill. B Leave 20mm (3/4in) of quill at each end of feather to tie arrow. C tie 3 flights equally spaced around the shaft.


At the business end of the arrow a sharp point is needed. The arrow itself can be sharpened and hardened in fire but a firm tip is better. Tin is excellent or flint can be fashioned into a really sharp arrowhead.

With patience even bone can be made into a good tip. Split the end of the shaft, insert the arrow head and bind it tightly. Sinews are good for binding- apply wet, they dry hard securing the head firmly.


Arrow and spear heads, axes and knives can all be made by knapping flint, which is a black stone with a dull metallic gleam, often found in association with chalk.

Choose a flattish piece of approximately the right shape and size. With another hard stone flake off pieces until it is the shape you want.

Chip away at the edges to produces a very sharp cutting edge. see tools in camp craft.


Fit an arrow into the bowstring and raise the centre of the bow to eye-level. Hold the bow just below the arrow, extending the arm forwards.

Keep the bow arm locked & draw the string smoothly back across the front of your body, with the arrow at eye-level, & lined up with the target, sighting along the arrow.

Release the string-just let go, do not snatch it as you do so. Now practise! For rapid fire carry a number of arrows in your bow hand.


Many archers find that the rubbing of the arrow flights against the hand and the cheek can cause friction burns.

A scarf or a piece of cloth pulled tight to the face will protect the cheek without interfering with the shot and either a leather mitten worn or a leather guard fitted between the fingers and the wrist to protect the hand.


The simple sling was the weapon with which David slew the giant Goliath and can be armed with ordinary pebbles. It consist of a simple pouch in the middle of a length of rope.

Leather is the best material for the pouch but you could make it from any strong fabric and the rope can be leather thong or twisted from natural fibres. Attach it as one long piece threaded through, or 2 tied or sewn on.


Select smooth pebbles about 2cm (3/4in) across and as round as possible, jagged pebbles may do more damage but they will not follow such a smooth trajectory. Swing the sling above the head in a circle lined up on your target

Release one end of the rope and the ammunition should fly with great velocity & with practice, accurately on target.

You will probably need to experiment with sling length to achieve accuracy & distance. When using either the sling or the catapult against birds load several pebbles at once.


The schoolboy's weapon- but the Romans used giant mechanical ones as siege weaponry. You need a strong forked twig, preferably with some pliability - a hazel prong is excellent - a piece of elastic material.

A piece of inner-tube from a car or a bicycle tire is ideal and stronger than the elastic in your clothing, although that could be used.

Make a pouch for the centre of the elastic and thread or sew it into position as for the sling, tie the ends to each side or your twig and use a stone as a cruise missile.


A staff is a good aid to walking and by sharpening one end can be turned into a useful thrusting or throwing weapon.

A straight staff about 1.80m (6 feet) is ideal for a jabbing spear. About 90cm (3 feet) makes a more manageable throwing spear.

A thrower can be made from a piece of wood about half the length and it gives a greater accuracy and distance.


Spear sits in a groove which runs along most, but not all of the upper face of the thrower. The end stop adds thrust to the spear.


Choose a tree limb that is at least twice the width of your spear and with a branch stump which can become the forward sloping handle.

Split down the centre using a knife as a wedge. Gouge out a smooth channel for the spear.

MAKE SURE it is cleanly cut, leaving a solid portion as a buffer. Experiment to match the thrower length to that of the spear and to suit your own balance.

Held at shoulder level, aim the spear at the target, bringing the holder sharply forwards and then downwards. As you move downwards the butt of the groove adds to the thrust behind the spear.

To make a spear more effective add a point of flint, knapped to sharpness or a flattened cone of tin, set into the end or securely bind on a knife. However if you only have one knife do not risk it, it could too easily be lost or damage.


Wounded and trapped animals can be dangerous. Before approaching closely check whether then animal is dead.

Use a spear or tie your knife to a long stick and stab the largish animal in its main muscle and neck. Loss of blood will weaken it, enabling you to move closer and club it on the head. (Boum!).

If you have a companion it is easier to carry a large animal by tying it firmly to a bough which can be carried on your shoulders but you should not take it all the way to the camp, where it would attract flies and scavenging animals.

Even large animals can be dragged to a more convenient location if turned upon their backs. If the animal has horns cut off its head or they will make this difficult.

Place the pole along the belly and use a clove hitch around each pair of legs. Lash the animal to the pole and finish with a clove hitch around the pole. If the animal has horns, tie these up out of the way or cut them off.

It is preferable to butcher all game on the trap line. It will attract predators and carrion eaters that in turn may become trapped.

Use the entrails to rebait traps. Only carry back to camp what you can manage without exertion. In cool climates cache the rest for collection later.


Suspend a carcase from a bough too high for scavengers on the ground and out of reach from the branch.

A cache in a the crook of a tree will keep meat away from ground predators but will be accessible to felines and other climbing predators.

In territories with vultures and other large carrion eaters it will be almost impossible to protect it, so carry what you can. What you leave behind is unlikely to keep in a hot climate.

Blood is a valuable food, containing vital minerals. Carry a vessel for taking it back to camp. Keep it covered, cool & out of the way of flies.

DEER FAMILY: (Dear Abby?)

Deer and Moose are found throughout Canada's forest zone while Elk and Caribou are most common in Western Canada.


Follow ridges overlooking open country but avoid showing yourself against the skyline.

Look for saltlicks and #wallows#. Flies and ticks torment these animals during hot weather and they take refuge in #wallows#.

This frantic splashing can be heard at considerable distance. Watch for game trails since most animal prefer to use these when travelling.


The Deer, Elk, Moose, usually "yard up" in low lying protected areas, such as Cedar Swamps which they love to eat, Willow clumps & other thickets.


Hunt upwind or crosswind, avoid making noise & stop frequently to scan the area.

If an animal starts up suddenly remain stationary as they often return to investigate what has caused the noise.

So don't follow it immediately since it might not know your presence, so by checking all sides you have a better chance to kill it, many animals act this way.


Unless the animal is really near, the head or neck are too small a target since when you are ready to shoot the animal may decide to move suddenly so as most hunters do it is preferable to aim at the hearth and lungs area.

This method is faster and more sure and once hit the animal can not go far. One can also aim for the belly but the results are not as good, the animal can still run many a mile without showing any blood trails before dying.


Should you wound an animal; Don't follow it immediately! If you attempt to follow it, it may run for miles before dropping, but if you wait 5 minutes or even 10 it may lie down after a short run & either bleed or stiffen up.

If you wait too long then it may decide to try another run and go before you show up. Have a smoke. When game is taken, bleed clean and cool as soon as possible.

It is a common error, to think that an animal deadly wounded will drop and stay where it is.

Most will clear away at least a hundred feet or so after and drop for a spell, thus you have to go after it but as we said wait a little while before going to look around.

As soon as you can you MUST bleed and clean the animal especially Deer. Since its own heat is enough to spoil the meat.

MAKE SURE THAT THE ANIMAL IS DEAD, by poking a stick in the eye.


Once a caribou herd is located little trouble is done in shooting them particularly when migrating. Approach them low and upwind. When they are grazing in the valley they watch the horizon.


In Summer it is not easy to discover the running area of a deer. But by walking SLOWLY & observing ATTENTIVELY you will see the trails left on black earth, mud or soft soil.

As soon as they are found you then MUST be attentive to the young alder, willow, maple shoot etc. which are nearby.

When you find the tip of these trees cut as if by a blade then you are on. The whither the cut the more recent is the last meal, the more yellow the cut, the older is the meal.

You then should easily find manure pile, the more shiny and brown the fresher it is, the more grey and dull the older it is. The deer as the moose give shit in pill forms.

So once you have found the traces of manure & freshly cut shoots you have to be very careful and you will find the paths that the deer use.


As soon as you have found one path, just walk perpendicularly to this one & you will find others near by.

The greenhorn will have the impression that those trails are man made being so clean and well kept and about 15 inches wide; clean to the ground and where no grass or moss is growing just as clean as sheep trail.

If one of those trails brings you to a river or stream or any water points then you are in deer terrain having found all the indications of his normal habitat.

Study then very carefully this terrain in an area of about 1 square mile, a deer has rarely a bigger area except for mating time which starts after hunting time anyway in later fall.

Find the most used path and trail and the best places where you can catch and see best the deer.

Study the winds and where best to hide so that the wind is in your favour, sometimes at the outset of a forest sometimes inside.

DEER HABITS: (Not dear Abby)

Once one knows where the deer is living you MUST learn his habits. The early bird gets the worm is true in hunting deer. At high moon there is little chance to get him.

In high wind the animals are usually very nervous and hide most of the time just the same if it rains or snow heavily.

Even if there is not specific time schedule to bag a deer, usually the best time is from daybreak to 8 or 9 AM. & about 1 hour before sunset.


You MUST study the wind very carefully otherwise there is no chance to hunt a deer that has smell your presence which is why;


Consequently it is good to know that hot air rises and that the morning sun heating the mountain flanks pushes the air upward. The deer know this very well & so MUST you also.


So before Noon you will hunt from up the mountain going down and in the Evening the air flows downward unless a strong wind prevails thus you will hunt from down the mountain going upward.



The deer as most animal has the hear and smell extremely well developed but his sight is not as good, it does not mean it is blind as a bat for all that, but colours mean very little to him. Yet the least movement will catch his attention.

You MUST then stay immobile and MAKE SURE that you leave behind your back a big tree or rock, or shrub whatever is big enough to hide you completely so as to render any movement from you harder to detect. MAKE SURE you don't have anything shiny or too pale a face.

The deer is not afraid of noise, it knows instinctively which one is dangerous for him. It has been often seen not even raising his head to the noise of plane breaking sound barrier or close to a road full of noisy car going by and not even seem to notice

Yet the rushing feet or hunter will drive him away in a hurry. Even the sound of a gun can leave him indifferent.

His smelling sense is maybe the strongest and to smell man is for him a sign to move out quickly. It is to the hunter the point that appears to be the one which you MUST MOST BE CAREFUL.

So MAKE SURE you don't use shaving lotion or perfume and that your hunting clothes will be hung outside for several days, as well if possible as to rub Cedar leaves on you and on your clothes.

The deer just adores to eat in fresh wood cuttings where he can stuff himself of young spruce shoot, many a wood cutter has thus found him close by & taken advantage of this craving. In summer he craves for salt thus you can use this to get him.

If he finds a salt point he will organise his life style in consequences thus making it easier for you to bag him later.

But in the fall he losses this salt craving completely. His winter quarters are not the same as the summer ones.

He also likes apple, clover, lettuce, strawberries and is particularly sensitive to #thuya# as soon as the first snow hits the ground.

He also loves cedar & will stick closer to them especially if there are but a few of them around. This is why many hunters will rub #thuya# oil on them during hunting season.

The deer is very curious by nature especially the doe and the young deer, this is why they have the tendency to stop after his first run of 7 to 800 feet after having something that looks like a human.

They want to be sure thus you can take advantage of this. The female nearly ALWAYS comes first before the male, you will see the female and then a few minutes later the buck will come along. The buck function is to guard the rear to protect the doe.


Weight for weight shoot for the big game of course and you aim from the steadiest position for the vital region which affords the most margin for error, usually the chest.


A deer rarely places himself to be shot as one would like it to be yet one has to hit a vital point to kill it.

The only parts that will bring a quick death are the brain, hearth, lungs and #colonne vertebral#.

Elsewhere a deer could be mortally wounded yet go to die a mile farther especially if you make the mistake to go run after as soon as you hit it.

This is why you MUST LEAVE IT BE for a while about 5 minutes so it can bleed sufficiently for you to finish it off.

If you find traces of dirty blood stains of bluish colour it means you have it hit at the intestines and the deer can survive for many hours still.

So to run after it right away would be extreme carelessness in that particular case go after the deer only later. (10 min.) This may sound hard to do with the hunting fever but it is the only good thing to do.

Do not be caught on appearance alone, for a deer hit at the lungs will run just as fast as the deer near by and will give you the impression of being unwounded.

Also often a deer which you have missed will not move at all thus giving you the chance for a second shot even a third one, however once hit, it will not give you a second chance.

If a deer moves after the shot but does not stop immediately after the bang then it is most likely a hit. The only time it will drop on sight is if it is hit at the brain or #colonne vertebralle#.

Lets suppose that the deer is on profile but at lower range for ex. at a couple hundred feet at the foot of a hill.

You MUST then aim at several vertebral higher to correct the angle otherwise you will it the deer at the lungs at the lower belly point of entry.

If the deer is much higher than you, then you MUST hit lower. Avoid to hit directly at the head, you may tear off 3/4 of the head but without any guaranty to drop the deer, unless you hit it just above the eyes which is a very small target indeed.


How to beat the deer on its own terrain or the hardest hunt. To succeed one needs: INFINITE PRECAUTIONS.


To walk as an animal without any noise and with a slowness difficult to imagine. One want to believe that the more he walks the better his chance to see a deer, he will but not close enough for a good shot.

A deer unless in heat walks in a small area, relying on his sense of smell, and hearing and eyesight to avoid danger.

He walks very slowly, listening a lot, stops at any noise even 5 minutes without moving a hair then starts again looking all around!

All these precautions makes it that he covers hardly more than 1/2 mile per hour.


There are times when this type of hunting can not be done. A clear weather, a frozen ground or a noisy #crissante# snow compounded with a good wind will tell your presence up to one mile all around and no deer will let you come near by.

The ideal conditions are when there is a #temps mort, also un sol sourd# or covered with a good soft snow sheet. Good hunting Nemrod.

As soon as you see a deer, don't move at all, otherwise it's gone. Wait till it relaxes then approach it slowly, check where you walk so as not to step of dead branches etc. and check the wind.



But it requires you to know very well the habits of the deer and its habitat, needing also a patience of a monk and a very very strong resistance to cold and adverse weather.

Requiring at time even a week of waiting before you can bag the game. Regardless of those inconveniences, IT IS THE MOST PRODUCTIVE WAY TO KILL GAME.

Since you will do fewer errors while waiting for your game to show up except if you move constantly, then zero games for Rambo on the go.

Especially if you have chosen an elevate spot to wait your game, the deer has very little chance since it can not see, hear or smell you. A deer rarely looks up to see if there is any danger around.

This kind of hunting is good not only for deer but bobcat, fox, moose, wolf. You can hide behind a rock, a bush or a shrub etc.

You can sit or stand in your cache or even lay down but the choice of your cache requires an in depth study of the surrounding land, as well as the incoming & outgoing of the animals hunted.


It sometimes helps if you have 2 different cache so that if the wind is in the wrong direction for one cache you revert to the other one.

Still your best bet is the one cache that is elevated and well prepared ahead at strategic points near the paths where the animals go for good or water or the one that he goes to rest for the day.

Deer have general routes like our highways but also a route which he uses for emergency procedures. It will usually travel so as to have the wind in its face as it goes to rest, feed or water.

The best places for fodder are the clearings, foot of hills or mountains, wood roads, along swamps and in cultivated and shallow land.

Even for greenhorns the feeding grounds are easy to spot by numerous trails, crushed grass, leaves bitten off or chewed off young shoots freshly cut, shit pile and other signs.

Yet this kind of hunting requires as said an angel patience, steel nerves, complete and noiseless immobility.

So don't toss, turn, sniffle, cough or smoke! Play dead. If you scare the little animals around you will also warn the big ones too.

If the weather is calm and with no wind, this type of hunting is best not to wait too long since the area will be filled with your smell, thus warn the animal.

If the time is dry then it is best to stick around in the cache since all branches crack easily.

REMEMBER that in the mountains the wind changes directions many times in the day, throwing dust in the air, or wetting your finger will tell you its direction.


This is why the lamp trick is useful to help you fight the chill. You make a wooden box under which you put an oil lamp lighted which will give you warmth.

MAKE SURE that the box is high enough so as not to catch fire to the wood & not burn your ass while sitting. Also a piece of felt is useful. Sorry no walkman!


Rarely practice by hunters yet very successful if done properly.

The deer is not afraid of canoe, what the deer hates is sudden movement which he associates to animal hunting him or animals in distress, so to him sudden moves = danger.

To a deer people in canoe are like floating logs. Since the deer loves water then a canoe trip of about 15 to 20 miles on a river or around a lake is nearly ALWAYS a sure way to see and kill a deer.

However the shooting in a canoe is extremely difficult so you MUST shoot fast while the other man tries to immobilise the canoe as best as possible, yet it requires 2 persons to do such a hunting.

The best all around canoe for normal river is 22 feet long & for the smaller rivers or stream the 16 feet & about 70 lbs. known as the canvas canoe.

REMEMBER to bring canoe gum so that if you make a hole on a sharp stone it can be fix fast. Dress well for the water is usually extremely cold at the best time of the year.


Since fat is the utmost ESSENTIAL in survival and bears bearing lots of fat, then bait him with any sweet meat, now the best today is BACON!

YUP! Just FRY! IT OR TRY IT! The good old ordinary bacon smell gets them coming and going all the time Nuts, in fact! Just FRY any bacon or sweet smelling like bacon meat.

Bears will come running, from miles around, like the rabbit going and going and going, to You Rambo-Zoro!

This tip comes from Alfred Little John, an old Ojibwa Indian friend of mine and from all his ancestors.


Most are not dangerous unless wounded or excited, REMEMBER if you see a cub by himself that mother is close by and NEVER get yourself between the cub and her you are dead meat buddy boy. MAKE SURE you are well armed this is no kid game.

The advantage beside good meat & pelt is the good amount of FAT which is ESSENTIAL survival.



Bear is a delicious meat but as for the pork it can contain and transmit to man a disease called #trichine# which is a worm invisible to the naked eye so as a precaution you MUST cook well the bear meat.


Few animals are likely to attack the survivor unless in self-defence, most will be much more concerned to get out of the way.

There is little chance of encountering large animals such as elephants, rhinos, dinosaurs hippopotamus or the larger big cars outside wildlife reserves.

Nevertheless avoid making camp on a trail, or close to an animal watering place, where you could find you are in the path of a herd of elephants or confronted by a curious cougar.


Bears frequently scavenge from homesteads in the northern forests turning over garbage cans and are just as likely to come round your camp for easy picnicking.

Use noise to drive them off. Don't try to catch them. Don't get to close to them. A bear can easily kill a man and a wounded bear is particularly dangerous.


Most animals will try to escape. If you prevent them from doing so, you are forcing them to fight.

put in jungle.

Crocodiles and alligators should be given a wide berth unless very small and then beware that there is not a larger crocodile behind you! (Sneaky bastards!)

Any of the large-horned animals is likely to be able to wound you with its horns before you can reach it with a weapon.

Stags are particularly belligerent in the rutting season. It is not just hoofed animals that can deliver a powerful blow with their feet, ostriches can kill you with a kick.

Wolves are much more often heard than seen. Tales of large marauding packs are probably wild exaggerations.

A wolf may get curious and look at you from a distance but you can take with a pinch of salt the idea of hunters being chased by pack of ferocious wolves.

If you are badly injured and unable to defend yourself, wolves might finish you off. Hyenas also hunt in packs.

Although basically cowardly, they are very powerful and as scavengers are attracted to camp sites. They will probably turn tail and run but drive them off rather than try to tackle them.

The larger apes can easily kill a man but they are rarely aggressive animals and will usually give you plenty of Warnings to back off.

Small monkeys are much more often encountered and more immediately dangerous because they have sharp teeth.

Mature chimpanzees in particular can be very bad tempered. Thoroughly cleanse any animal bite. All could cause tetanus and some mammals including vampire bats can carry rabies.

Snake will not be a threat unless you accidentally come into contact with them. You just have to get used to them and to check clothing, bedding & equipment for any reptile or insect visitors. Occasionally a snake or a centipede may slide into bed with you attracted by your warmth.

Cases have been known of people waking to find an unwelcome visitor nestling in an armpit or even more intimate places.

Try to REMEMBER that they are not attacking. Move gently and calmly to free yourself from them.


1) During winter and during spring the water ?? together such as seals, walrus and polar bear will stay on floating ice or iceberg. Good source of food and fuel.

2) To catch seals proceed with caution and prudence. Stay against wind and not sharp movements.

If possible wear white clothing. Move forward only when the head of the animal tells you it is asleep.

If it moves stand up quickly and shout, the animals being surprised will stay put then it time to shoot it down.

The liver of shark & seal is rich in Vitamin A so for you not to get sick only eat a little of it.

3) Walruses stay on floating ices and you MUST approach them usually with a boat. THEY ARE THE MOST DANGEROUS ANIMALS IN THE ARCTIC, better stay away it's safer.

4) Polar bears live nearly all along the Arctic shore. It rarely goes to land. Avoid it as much as possible.


SEAL: (It with a kiss!)

The common seal is found along most sea coast of the polar region. The survivor can use it as food and as fuel for its oil.

If the seal is killed between the month of August and June its body floats so you can bring it back to dry land.

After June the body will sink because it has less fat. At sea the seal is very curious and if you hit or scratch something it will come nosing around to see what the phoquing story is all about.

During the Winter the seal lives under the ice but comes to breath through ice hole which are hard for greenhorns to find.

But in the spring the seal can be hunted easily since they love to take sun bath lifting its head every minute or so to check the area.

This is when you have to stay immobile, if you have any white sheet use it as camouflage to crawl till close enough to shoot.


To hide your scent well, just stand in front of a smoky fire for 10 to 15 minutes on both side till the smoke gets itself into your clothes.

Since smoke kills scent then animals will come right up to you without problems.


You can use your hand warmer charcoal to start a fire too.