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Slender growing to 6m (18ft) in Mangrove swamps and estuaries from tropical Africa East to Indonesia & Australia.

It has pale bark many pencils like roots spear shaped to oblong leaves yellow flowers and small round white berries..

CAUTION: The SAP blisters the skin & will BLIND YOU IF IT GETS IN YOUR EYES!


Widespread in the Tropics, often by water are smallish with crinkly spear shaped sharply toothed leaves and drooping spikes of flowers like an ordinary nettle.

There are many kinds including temperate ones. The burning sting is like a nettle's, but much worse. The Seeds are VERY POISONOUS.


Of scrub and light woodland is trailing vine with oval leaflets in group of 3 spikes of hairy dull purplish flowers & brown hairy seed pods. Contact with pods & flowers causes irritation & BLINDNESS if in the eyes.


A tree reaching 20m (60ft) (can't miss the s.o.b) in jungle in South East Asia, mainly Malaysia, with heart shaped leaves in spirals spikes of green flowers and clusters of large brownish pear shaped fruits. All parts are POISONOUS especially the fruits. The seeds contain Prussic acid.


A shrub or small tree of wooded country throughout the tropics has large lobed ivy like leaves small greenish yellow flowers and yellow apple sized fruits containing 3 large seeds.

The seed taste sweet but their oil is violently purgative, hence its name and the remains of the pressed Seeds VERY POISONOUS. Has also dangerous relatives.


A small tree with oval leaves in opposite pairs and white to yellowish red orange like fruits whose seeds containing strychnine are deadly.

It is found mainly in India but other strychnine species occur throughout the Tropics.


Found throughout the Tropics in scrubby and waste place is shrub like its leaves arranged like the fingers of a hand with spikes of yellow flowers and prickly 3 seeded pods. Seeds are violently purgative sometimes fatally.


Resemble an ordinary EDIBLE strawberry, trailing with 3 parts leaves red strawberry like fruits and yellow NOT white flowers on waste ground in the warmer parts of Asia.



Of parts of India East to South East Asia that have severely irritant sap the Beachapple or Manzanillo (Hippomane Mamcinella) of the new world tropics a small tree with smooth pale bark and small apple like POISONOUS FRUITS that also has irritant sap.

And the Sandbox tree (Hua Crepitans) also of the new world a large spiny tree whose sap can irritate or temporarily blind its segmented fruits that look rather like miniature pumpkins ARE POISONOUS.


These plants thrive in salty conditions but at the right time of year, many other EDIBLE plants occur near the Coast.


Average 90cm (3ft) pale stalked with pale green spear shaped or triangular leaves and spikes of small greenish white flowers on salty grounds, some kinds well inland. Cook the young leaves.


Is sprawling red tinged with leathery long stalked dark green leaves and clusters of small green flowers on European coasts. The leaves ARE EDIBLE raw or boiled.


Average 30cm (1ft) with fleshy blue green lobed leaves lilac or purplish flowers and egg shaped seed pods. THE PEPPERY LEAVES AND YOUNG PODS CAN BE EATEN RAW OR AS POTHERB.


Often widespread in Saline Areas have plump greenish yellow jointed stems up to 30cm (1ft) Some grow in great density on mud flats as single shoots 15cm (6in) high. Minute flowers are scarcely visible at the junction of the stems.


Squat and bushy with umbrellas of yellow flowers is not relation but grows on shingles as well as cliff.

Its thick hairless stems and fleshy grey green leaves cut into narrow leaflets ARE BOTH EDIBLE. Cook and suck away the fleshy parts.


Average 25cm(10in) with dark green fleshy heart of kidney shaped leaves and small white or pink flowers; often abundant on coasts. Very bitter, best Bleached in water but So rich in vitamin C that the survivor should eat if encountered.


Is Cabbage like with thick grey green leaves fury petal white flowers and globular seed pods.

On European Coasts. The very toughs leaf are better cooked, the underground stems can be sliced and thoroughly boiled.


Is thistle like average 60cm (2ft) with spiky white veined ice blue leaves and a blue thistle head; on North European coasts. Dig out the long roots slice and boil.


Is sprawling mat forming blue green and fleshy with oval leaves and clusters of pink to blue purple flowers, on North European Coast. The leaves ARE EDIBLE RAW OR COOKED.


Is stocky celery scented to 90cm (3ft) often purple stemmed with bright green leaves and heads of tiny white flowers on North European coasts.

Raw leaves are rich in Vitamin C or add these and chopped stems to other foods. Several similar lovage occur elsewhere.


This vegetation is likely to consist principally of Palm Trees though in the Old World Tropics it may be possible to find Screw Pines (Pamdanus) so called because of their thin spirally grouped leaves.

They can often distinguish by the many aerial roots at the base of the trunk. Knobbly globular many segmented fruits are available all year and in some kinds make good eating


May also be found near the coast while there is also the Sour Plum (Ximenia Caffra) a small usually thorny tree whose plum like yellow fruits have EDIBLE PULP. There are several different kinds throughout the Tropics.

Other plants include Passion Fruit: often found near the shore in the Tropical Americas and the fleshy stemmed Seaside Purslane (Seuvium) which grows near beaches & salt water of which the WHOLE PLANT CAN BE EATEN.


Most varieties of Seaweed are found in shallow waters anchored to the bottom or a rock but there are some that float on the surface in the open oceans.

Coastal weeds are usually found stratified with green forms growing in surface waters, red in shallow water and brown a little deeper.


Is light green resembling garden lettuce and is found on rock and stones in the Atlantic and Pacific especially where water runs into the sea. Wash and boil.


Is pale green with pod like unbranched fronds up to 50cm (2ft) long usually less.

Often abundant on rocks in rock pools & also on salted marshes in cooler waters AROUND THE WORLD.

The Whole plant is EDIBLE either fresh or dried and pulverised. It's best picked up in early spring.


Have a short cylindrical stem and thin wavy olive green to brown fronds often very long on rocky shores of the Atlantic & Pacific. EDIBLE Raw but better boiled.


Consist of forking, lobed purplish to olive green fronds often in dense bed on Atlantic shores. Wash and boil.

Cooled the residue will set like gelatine. Fronds may be dried for storage, leave them in the sun until they have bleached white. Especially good for sex drive!


Has long flat wavy margined yellow brown fronds attached to stones and rocks common in the Atlantic & off China & Japan. Young fronds ARE EDIBLE Raw but better cooked. Sweet tasting.


Has purple red short stemmed loved fan shaped fronds and occurs in the Atlantic & Mediterranean. Leathery but sweet; boil it. Dulse can be dried and rolled for chewing tobacco.


Have thin irregularly shaped satiny red purplish or brown fronds and are found in both the Atlantic & Pacific. Boil until tender then mash. Use as a relish or combine with grains to make cakes. Very tasty!

NOTE: Rich in vitamins & minerals, SEAWEEDS is an IDEAL SURVIVAL FOOD.



But some contain acids that irritate the digestive tract and some are violent purgatives. If not identified as a known EDIBLE species try only small amount.

Even with the more EDIBLE varieties eat only a little until you have becomes used to them DO NOT Eat seaweed if short of water. If possible wash them in freshwater before eating to remove some of the salt.

Collect growing weed firm and smooth to the touch NOT the pieces washed up on the beach. REJECT ANY THAT SMELL BAD.

Some which contain irritating acids can be detected by crushing between the fingers & leaving for 5 minutes by which time they give off an unpleasant smell.

All seaweed decay rapidly out of the water. Use soon after collection or dry for later use.


Is a freshwater algae of N. America & Eurasia, forming green round jelly like marble sized globules in pools from spring on. Dry and use as a thickener Eat only bright green fresh looking.


It is found in freshwater not in the seas and oceans, floating on the surface of stagnant pools. Identify by its blue green colour and by its gassy smell. (Smell like shit!).


These keep reasonably well provided they are not allowed to get damp but will keep better if dried. Place them on hot rocks from the fire, turning them frequently until thoroughly dried. They should then be kept in damp proof containers.


Fruits and Berries can be dried whole or cut into slices and dried by sun, smoke or heat. Fungi also dry very readily. The Boletus species especially.

Fruit can usually be eaten dry. Fungi can be added to soup and stews or soaked in water for several hours to regain some of their texture if being used in other ways.

To store Lichens soak them overnight, boil well and allow to dry. Grind to a powder then boil again to form a thick syrup that can be kept in a sealed container and used to give body to other foods.


Wash in clean water and boil for just long enough to make then tender; they are often and easily overcooked.

Tender plants can be gently steamed if you are sure that they are safe to eat. Add to stew after the meat are cooked and already tender. Eat fresh greens RAW as salad.


SOME ARE TOXIC BUT THE TOXINS ARE DESTROYED BY HEAT. ALWAYS cook roots, boiling will make the toughest ones tender.

Roast roots are tasty- but boil them first. Try boiling for 5 minutes then place them in a hole dug beneath the fire cover with ash and embers and leave until tender.


Soak overnight in clean water. Add to stews.


Proper Sago comes from the Sago Palm but Buri, Sugar, Fishtail and in the American Tropics Cabbage Palm can be used in the same way.

The average Sago Palm yields about 275kg (600lb) of Sago, enough to feed one person for a year.

Cut down the palm at the base of the trunk, trim off the tip just below the last flowering line. Divide a large trunk into sections.

Cut lengthwise -- hard work for the outer bark is 5cm (2in) thick and hard as bamboo. Using each section as a trough, pound #pith# into a mash, then knead in a container of water (the bowl of the trunk will do) and strain through a cloth.

A starchy paste will precipitate in the water. Roll this into sticky balls & cook


Palm Sap is extracted from flowering parts, not the trunk. Choose a fat stalk carrying a flowering head (at the base of the crown of the trunk).

Bruise with a club to stimulate flow of sap, then cut off head. Sweet juice will flow from the end of the stalk. 1.5 litre (3pts) per day.

Bruise and cut daily to stimulate the flow. Drink RAW or boil then cool it to produce toffee like lumps of almost pure sugar. Sugar, Nipa, Coconut and Buri Palms can all be used the same way. Extracting resinous sap is dealt above. .


Grains are enclosed in a husk. Dry them thoroughly to allow the grain to crack out.

Thresh (or trash) it with a flail, stick or rock, or if the grain is very malleable, rub it between your hands.

Shake out on to a flat container and occasionally toss into the air in a breeze (winnowing). The husks (chaff) will blow away leaving the heavier seed behind.


Parch husked seeds on hot stones by the fire. The heat will cook and dry seeds without roasting them. This pinhole will keep well.

Eat cold or reheat. Add to stews or place a handful in a mug of hot water. Tasty and nutritious. Dry they will not be properly digested, but they will fill the belly. It is better to grind them into flour.


Grinding flour without a proper mill is hard work but can be done by pounding with a smooth stone on hard surface. Look for a large stone with a depression in the middle to place the grain in. Use a circling action as with a mortar and pestle.

Another way to grind flour is to hollow a tube of hard wood and to pound a stick up and down inside it on the grain. Mix flour with a little water and knead into a dough.

Bake in an oven or make into thin strips wrap around a shaven green stick and cook over hot embers. (Use hard wood NEVER Evergreen.)

Another method is to make the dough into fist size balls, flatten them and then drop hot pebble size stones into the centre and wrap the dough around them.

Lick your fingers before picking up the pebbles- if you are quick the moisture stops the pebbles from burning you or use sticks or tongs to lift them. Flour does not have to be made from cereal grains.

Use the flowering heads of Cat's Tail or boil and mash up peeled roots of Wild Calla for instance, or EDIBLE bark.

Those that are not harmful raw can be steeped in water and crushed with a stick or stone to free the starch.

Remove fibres, leave starch to settle, then pour off the water and you will have your flour.

NATURAL MEDICINE: Notes from the Herbalists Joseph E Meyer Book;


Leaving all POISONOUS plant alone and MAKING SURE that you have properly identified the plant.

REMEMBER that as a general rule plants will be most potent when in flower. Different parts of the plant may have different uses.

INFUSIONS are usually made from leaves or flowers and DECOCTION from roots as seen below. Divide the amount made into three doses to take in one day.

ALWAYS prepare infusions, decoctions and poultices freshly just before using it. NEVER keep for more than 12 Hours. Plants vary in potency depending on season when picked.

Do not think that you will do more good by taking or administrating larger doses you will not and you may do harm. Don't expect miracles over night. Give a treatment a fair chance to work.


Cut and crush the herb so that the juices and oils are more readily available.

You need a slack handful of herbs to a 1/2 litre (1pt) of water (30gr to 50cc/1oz to 20fl.oz). Pour boiling water over it. Stir. Leave to cool.

There is no need to strain, the herb will sink to the bottom. If you cannot boil the water use half the amount of cold water and stand the vessel in the sun.

If there is no sun or no waters try sucking or chewing the leaves, extracting as much of the juices as possible then spit out the pulp.


Usually a preparation from roots. Cut, scrape and mash root. Soak in water (handful to 85cc/ 1-1/2pt) for at least half an hour. Bring to boil, simmer until liquid reduces by 1/3.


Mash up root, leaves or all of the herb and make into a flat pad. If too dry add water. Apply to affected part and cover with a large leaf or clean cloth and bind in position. Poultice can be applied to stiff joints, sprains and pus-filled sores.


Reduce stem and leaves of the plant to a juicy mush by crushing with hands, rocks or sticks.

Squeeze juice only into a wound and spread pulp around the affected area. Keep in place with a large leaf and bind.

The food value of botanical is so far in advance of chemicals that there should be no comparison & the therapeutic value of botanical in comparison to man made chemical is open to argument.

The one big factor in favour of botanical is that they are a natural agent and harmless in the ordinary dose, which is far more that can be said of most chemicals. Indeed many chemicals are positively harmful.

Not all the parts of the plant are used in medicine; sometimes the seed only, in others the flower, the leaves, root etc. in other the whole plant etc. Lets start the plant anatomy & time.


All roots, barks, herbs, leaves, flowers and bulbs that have a medicinal value are commonly called botanical drugs.

To get the best results from the work of collecting them, it is important to handle them properly as well as to collect at the right time of the year.

It is also well to see that the articles you collect are not mixed with some of similar appearance. The demand is for pure clean, properly handled goods.


Leaves should ALWAYS be collected in clear dry weather in the morning after the dew is off.

They are at their best when the plant is in bloom and should be collected at this time. Leaves of biennials are most valuable during the second year of their growth.

In drying; spread out thinly on a clean floor and stir occasionally until they are thoroughly dry. Remove all stems from leaves & REMEMBER that the leaves that are worth most are those which retain their natural green colours. Dampness will turn them black so be careful not to let them leaves get damp.


In collecting herbs, strip off the flowers, smaller leaves and very small stems and reject the large stem. Dry same as leaves. The large woody stems are of NO value.


Flowers are worth most from the standpoint of their medicinal value immediately upon opening. The directions for collecting leaves also apply for flowers at their best when their natural colour is preserved in drying.


Bulbs should be gathered at the time of the leaves of the plant die, which is of course in Autumn. The outer heavy coat should be removed & the bulb sliced, after which it should be dried by artificial heat not to exceed 100 degrees Fahrenheit.


Barks may be gathered either in the fall or spring. Wild cherry & other rough barks should be roasted before peeling, that is the rough outer bark MUST be scraped or shaved off and the inner bark then peeled. Barks may be dried in sunlight except green Wild Cherry.


Seeds should be gathered as soon as they ripen. Only heavy full developed seeds are of value. Others should be removed by winnowing.


Springs from the seed make their full growth and die in one year.


It does not flower the first year but produces leaves only. The second year of its growth it flowers after which it dies. The carrot and parsnip are some examples.


Lives for more than 2 years. If the plant retains its leaves during the winter it is known as an evergreen if the leaves fall upon the approach of cold weather it is said to be deciduous.


A plant having a soft stem that dies down to the ground after the plant has reached, its full growth.


A plant that has a woody stem, grows to a height of 25 to 30 feet or less and branches near the ground.


Has a woody stem, is higher than a shrub and does not branch near the ground.


The root of a plant is that portion that is usually found in the earth, the stems and leaves being in the air. The point of union is called the collar or neck of the plant.

FIBROUS ROOT: is one composed of many spreading branches as that of barley.

CONICAL ROOT: is one where it tapers regularly from the crown to the apex as that of the carrot.

FUSIFORM ROOT: is one when it tapers up as well as down as that of the radish.

NAPIFORM ROOT: When much swollen at the base, so as to become broader than long as the turnip.

FASCICULATE ROOT: is one when some of the fibres or branches are thickened.

TUBERIFEROUS: is one when some of the branches assume the form of rounded knobs as that of the potato.

PALMATE ROOT: is one when these knobs are branched.

AERIAL ROOT: are those emitted from the stem into the open air as that of the Indian Corn.

RHIZOME OR ROOT STOCK: Is a prostrate stem either subterranean or resting on the surface as that of the calamus or blood root.

TUBER: Is an enlargement of the apex of a subterranean branch of the root, as that of the common potato or artichoke

CORMUS: Is a fleshy subterranean stem of a round or oval figure as in the Indian Turnip.

BULB: Is an extremely abbreviated stem clothed with scales as that of the lily.


It is that portion of the plant that grows in an opposite direction from the root, seeking the light and exposing itself to the air.

All flowering plants possess stems. In those which are said to be stemless it is either very short or concealed beneath the ground.

AN HERB is: one which the stem does not become woody but dies down to the ground at least after flowering.

A SHRUB is: a woody plant branched near the ground & 1 to 6 feet high.

A TREE: Attain a greater height with a stem unbranched near ground. The stem of a tree is usually called the trunk, in grasses it has been termed the CULM.

The stems that are too weak to stand erect are said to be decumbent, procumbent and prostrate.

A STOLON is: a form of a branch which curves or falls down to the ground where they often strike root.

A SUCKER is: a branch of subterraneous origin, which after running horizontally and emitting roots in its course at length rises out of the ground and forms an erect stem that soon becomes an independent plant, as that of the Rose, Raspberry etc.

A RUNNER is: a prostrate slender branch sent off the base of the parent stem.

AN OFFSET is: a similar but shorter branch with a tuft of leaves at the end as in the houseleek.

A SPINE is: a short and imperfectly developed branch of a woody plant as that of the honey-locust.

A TENDRIL is: commonly a slender leafless branch capable of coiling spirally as in the grape vine.


Is commonly raised on an unexpended part or stalk which is called the PETIOLE while the expanded portion is termed the LAMINA, LIMB or BLADE.

When the vessels or fibres of the leaves expand immediately on leaving the stems the leaf is said to be SESSILE.

In such case the PETIOLE is absent. When the blade consists of a single piece the leaf is simple, when composed of 2 or 3 more with a branched petiole, the leaf is compound.

The distribution of the veins or framework of the leaf in the blade called: VENATION

A LANCEOLATE LEAF: has the form of a lance.

AN OVATE LEAF: Has the shape of ellipsis.

A CUNEIFORM LEAF: Has the shape of a wedge.

A CORDATE LEAF: has the shape of a heart.

A RENIFORM LEAF: Has the shape of a kidney.

A SAGITTATE LEAF: ............... An arrow.

A HASTATE LEAF: ...An ancient halberd.

A PELTATE LEAF: .... A shield.

A SERRATE LEAF: In which the margin is beset with sharp teeth, which point forward towards the apex.

A DENTATE LEAF: Is one when these teeth are not directed towards the apex.

A CRENATE LEAF: Has rounded teeth.

A SINUATE LEAF: Has alternate concavities and convexities.

A PINNATE LEAF: has the shape of a feather.

A PECTINATE LEAF: Is one having very close and narrow divisions, like the teeth of a comb.

A LYRATE LEAF: Has the shape of a lyre.

A RUNCINATE LEAF: Is a LYRATE leaf with sharp lobes pointing towards the base as in the dandelion.

A PALMATE LEAF: Is one bearing considerable resemblance to hand.

A PEDATE LEAF: Is one bearing resemblance to a bird's foot.

AN OBOVATE LEAF: Is one having the veins more developed beyond the middle of the blade.

When a leaf at its outer edge has no dentation it is said to be entire. When the leaf terminates in an acute angle, it is acute, when in an obtuse angle it is obtuse.

An obtuse leaf with the apex slightly depressed is retuse or if more strongly notched emarginate.

An OBOVATE leaf with a wider or more conspicuous notch at the apex becomes obcordate, being a cordate leaf inverted.

When the apex is cut off by a straight transverse line the leaf is truncate.

When abruptly terminated by a small projecting point it is MUCRONATE, and when an acute leaf has a narrowed apex it is ACUMINATE. In ferns the leaves are called FRONDS.


The flower assumes an endless variety of forms and we shall assume in the dissection merely the typical form of it. The organs of a flower are of two sorts.

1st; Its leaves or envelopes and 2nd those peculiar organs having no resemblance to the envelopes. The envelopes are of two kinds, or occupy two rows, one above or within the other.

The lower or outer row is termed the Calyx and commonly exhibits the green colour of the leaves. The inner row that is usually of more delicate texture and forms the most showy part of the flower, is termed Corolla.

The several parts of the leaves of the Corolla are called Petals and the leaves of the Calyx have received the analogous name of Sepals.. The floral envelopes are collectively called the Perianth.

The ESSENTIAL organs enclosed within a floral envelope are also of two kinds and occupy two rows one within the other. The firsts of these, those next within the petals are the Stamens.

A stamen consists of a stalk called the Filament that bears on its summit a rounded body termed the Anther, filled with a substance called the Pollen.

The seeds bearing organs occupy the centre or summit of a flower & are called Pistils. A pistil is distinguished into three parts 1st; the Ovary containing the Ovales 2nd; the Style or columnar prolongation of the ovary; and 3rd; the Stigma or termination of the style.

All the organs of the flower are situated on or grown out of the apex of the flower-stalk, into which they are inserted and which is called the Torus or Receptacle.

A plant is said to be monoecious where the stamens and pistils are in separate flowers on the same individual.

Dioecious where they occupy separate flowers on different individuals and polygamous where the stamens and pistils are separate in some flowers and united in others either on the same or 2 or 3 different plants.

THE FRUIT: The principal kinds may be briefly stated as follows:

A FOLLICLE: Is the name given to such a fruit as borne by the Larkspur or Milkweed.

A LEGUME or POD: is the name extended to such fruit as the Pea or Bean.

A DRUPE: Is a stone fruit as the Plum, Apricot

An ACHENIUM: Is the name of the fruit as borne by the Buttercup.

A CREMOCARP: Is the fruit of the Poison Hemlock and similar plant.

A CARYOPSIS: Is such fruit as born by the Wheat tribe.

A NUT: Is the fruit of the Oak, Chestnut etc.

A SAMARA: Is the name of the fruit of the Maple, Birch and Elm.

A BERRY: is fruit fleshy & pulpy throughout as: Grape, Gooseberry

A POMME: Is the fruit such as the Apple, Pear.

A PEPO: Is to the fruit of the Pumpkin, Cucumber

A CAPSULE: Is general term for all dry fruit such as Lovelia etc.

A SILIQUE: Is fruit as of Shepherd's Purse etc.

A CONE or STOBILE: is a collective fruit of: Firtribe, Magnolia etc.


The seed like the ovule of which it is fertilised and matured state, consists of a nucleus usually enclosed within two integuments. The outer integument or proper seed coat is variously termed the episperm, spermoderm or testa.


ABSORBENT / ANTACIDS: such medicines that counteract acidity of the stomach and bowels.

ALTERNATIVES are: medicines which in certain doses work a gradual change by promoting the usual functions of different organs.

ANODYNES: Medicines that relieve pain.

ANTHELMINTIC: Medicines that have the power of destroying or expelling worms from the intestinal canal.

ANTISCORBUTIC: Those used in the treatment of scurvy.

ANTISPASMODICS: Those to relieve spasm or irregular & painful action for muscles or muscular fibres.

AROMATIC: Those with a grateful smell & agreeable pungent taste.

ASTRINGENTS: Those which when applied to the body render the solids dense and firmer.

CARMINATIVES: Those which dispel flatulency of the stomach.

CATHARTICS: Those which accelerate the action of the bowels or increase the discharge by stool.

DEMULCENT: Those suited to modify the action or acrid and stimulating matters upon the mucous membranes as in the throat.

DIAPHORETICS: Those that promote or cause perspirable discharge by the skin.

DIURETICS: Those which increase the flow of urine by their action upon the kidneys.

EMETICS: Those which produce vomiting.

EMOLLIENTS: those which when applied to the solids of the body render them soft and flexible

ERRHINES: Those which when applied to the lining membrane of the nostrils, occasion a discharge of mucus.

EPISPASTIC: Those which cause blisters when applied to the surface of the body forming sloughs.

EXPECTORANTS: Those capable of facilitating excretion of mucus.

NARCOTICS: Those having the property of diminishing the action of the nervous and vascular systems and of inducing sleep.

RUBEFACIENTS: Those which excite the vessels of the skin & increase its heat & redness.

SEDATIVES: Those which have the power of allaying the action or of lessening the exercise of some particular function.

SIALAGOGUE: Those which increase the flow of the saliva (salt).

STIMULANTS: Those capable of exciting the vital energy, whether as exerted in sensation or motion.

TONICS: Those which sharpen appetite & promote strength & tone. (Gin tonic?).


The more valuable and perishable articles should be shipped in boxes or barrels others by bags. See that all goods are dry before shipping otherwise they will mould on the way and be worthless when arriving at destination. Address via plants to check?? Indiana Botanical Garden Box 5 Hammond Indiana USA?.



Sick survivors need your care and attention but they MUST also be kept interested and optimistic.

If a man with pneumonia is left to curl up in a corner of the shelter, he will probably die.

Get him on his feet and keep him occupied with minor tasks. Give him plenty of fluids & coach him to eat.

Do not let him lie down. The hepatitis case MUST be forced to eat. You can not allow strength or moral to be depleted.


It can be used as such to wash out wounds. If patient is fussy let him use his own. If sick enough they won't care whose.


Is often used to wash wounds and keep it clean. Sea water is even better for that purpose providing it is fresh.


They have been used for centuries to clean wounds. In Tropical Countries an open wound is soon infested with them, but they do keep it open and clean until better treatment can be given. Keep watch that they don't devour good tissues.


For centuries fire as been used to clean wounds. Cauterising with heat requires fortitude in the patient, but if they can stand it and you have ammunition, placing powder around a wound and lighting. It can prevent gangrene.


The roots of Comfrey and to a certain extent Solomon's Seal are so rich in starch that they will set hard when they have been well boiled and reduced.

Allow to cool slightly and pack around an injured limb or joint. Good for holding poultices.



DOVE'S-FOOT CRANE'S BILL: Expressed juice.

GIANT PUFFBALL: Packed as poultice.

PERIWINKLE: Expressed juice of leaves. PLANTAINS: Pounded leaves as poultice

SELF-HEAL: Expressed juice

STORK'S-BILL: Expressed juice of leaves. WOUNDWORT: Expressed juice.


NOTE: Use these plants EXTERNALLY to bathe the skin or where indicated as a poultice. Apply 2 or 3 times a day.

BURDOCK: Decoction of root, crushed raw root and salt for animal bites / CAMOMILE: infusion of flowers as poultice / CHICKWEED: expressed juice of leaves / CLEAVERS: infusion of whole plant except roots / COMFREY: Decoction of root as poultice

DEAD-NETTLE: Infusion of flowers and shoots./ DOCKS: crushed leaves.

ELDER: Expressed juice of leaves / ELM: infusion of bark / HOREHOUND: Infusion of whole plant except root.

MALLOW: Decoction of leaves and flowers as poultice MARSH MALLOW: Decoction of root, infusion of leaves & flowers as poultice / OAK: Decoction of bark /

SANICLE: Infusion of whole plant except root /

SCURVY GRASS: crushed leaves./ SHEPHERD'S PURSE: Infusion of whole plant but root as poultice

SILVERWEED: Infusion of whole plant except root SOLOMON'S SEAL: decoction of root as poultice.

ST. JOHN WORT: Infusion of flowers & shoots. SORREL: Crushed leaves / TANSY: crushed leaves.

WATERCRESS: Expressed juice.

WOUNDWORT: Infusion whole plant except roots. YARROW: Infusion of whole plant but roots.


NOTE: These plants can be used Externally or Internally. THEY ARE PARTICULARLY USEFUL FOR WOUNDS THAT BECOME INFECTED!

GARLIC: Expressed juice. / MALLOW: infusion of leaves and flowers / MARSH MALLOW: decoction of root, infusion of flowers and leaves.

HORSERADISH: Decoction of root.

THYME: Infusion of leaves and flowers.


NOTE: Where indicated use Externally.

BALM: Infusion of leaves. / BIRCH: infusion of leaves / BORAGE: infusion of whole plant, but roots / BURDOCK: decoction of root.

CAMOMILE: Expressed juice of flowers applied to swelling / CHICKENWEED: infusion of whole plant except root / COMFREY: decoction of root applied to swelling / COWBERRY: infusion of leaves and fruits.

DOCK: Crushed leaves applied to bruises / DOVE'S FOOT & CRANE'S-BILL: infusion of whole plant but roots applied to swellings / ELM: Infusion of bark.

FIGWORT: Decoction of whole plant except root; use externally to draw bruises and blood clots. /

GARLIC: Expressed juice applied to swelling.


HOREHOUND: Expressed juice or leaves to = EARACHE / POPLAR: infusion of leaf buds/ SOLOMON'S SEAL: decoction of root; use externally.

SORREL: Crushed leaves applied to bruises. / ST. JOHN'S WORT: Infusion of flowers & shoots applied to bruises / TANSY: crushed leaves applied to bruises / WILLOW: Decoction of bark.


These plants will induce perspiration to break a fever.

CAMOMILE: Infusion of leaves and flowers / ELDER: infusion of flowers and fruit / ELM: decoction of bark / FEVERFEW: infusion of whole plant except roots / LIME: infusion of flowers.


AGRIMONY: Infusion of whole plant but roots / ANGELICA: decoction of root / BILBERRY: infusion of leaves and fruits / BISTORT: infusion of whole plant but roots / BORAGE: infusion of whole plant except roots BURDOCK: decoction of roots.

CAMOMILE: infusion of flower use as gargle (garlic too?): COLT'S FOOT: Infusion of leaves and flowers / COMFREY: infusion of whole plant /

GREAT MULLEIN: infusion of whole plant but roots, decoction of root as gargle.

HOREHOUND: Infusion of whole plant but roots / HORSERADISH: raw root/ LIME: infusion of flowers / LUNGWORT: infusion of whole plant but roots.

MALLOW: Infusion of flowers and leaves /MARSHMALLOW: decoction of root and infusion of leaves & flowers / MINT: infusion of whole plant but roots / MOUNTAIN AVENS: infusion of whole plant, use as gargle.

NETTLE: Infusion of leaves / OAK: decoction of bark; use as gargle / PLANTAIN: infusion of leaves and stems POPLARS: infusion of leaves buds.

ROSE: Decoction of hips / SANICLE: infusion of whole plant but nut roots SELF-HEAL: infusion of whole plant but roots, use as gargle.

ST. JOHN'S WORT: Infusion of flowers & shoots / THYME: infusion of leaves & flowers/ WILLOW: decoction of bark / YARROW: infusion of whole plant but roots use as inhalant.


BALM: Infusion of leaves / BILBERRY: decoction of fruit / BRACKEN: infusion of leaves / DANDELION: decoction of whole plant.

HORSERADISH: Infusion of root / MINT: infusion of whole plant but roots with crushed charcoal / SOLOMON'S SEAL: decoction of roots / SANICLE: infusion of roots / YARROW: infusion of leaves and flowers


NOTE: Take 2 or 3 times daily till symptoms subside.

BILBERRY: Decoction of fruit / BISTORT: Infusion of whole plant but roots / BRAMBLE: infusion of leaves or decoction of fruit. /

COWBERRY: Decoction of fruit / ELM: infusion of bark / GREAT BURNET: infusion of leaves and shoots / HAZEL: infusion of leaves. /

MARSHMALLOW: Infusion of leaves & flowers, decoction of root. / MINT: infusion of whole plant but roots / MOUNTAIN AVENS: infusion of whole plants but roots /

OAK: Decoction of bark / PLANTAIN: infusion of leaves and stems / PERIWINKLE: infusion of leaves NOT TO USE for long periods / SILVERWEED: infusion of whole plant but roots.


AGRIMONY: Infusion of whole plant but roots. BARBERRY: Expressed juice of fruit / COMMON

CLEAVERS: infusion of whole plant but roots. COUCH GRASS: (Elymus): decoction of root. DANDELION: Decoction of whole plant.

ELDER: Expressed juice of fruit / FEVERFEW: infusion of leaves and flowers / ROWAN: expressed juice of fruit / ROSE: decoction of hips / WALNUT: decoction of bark. /


NOTE: Apply externally 2 or 3 times a day.

BILBERRY: Expressed juice of fruit / CAMOMILE: infusion of leaves and flowers / ELM: decoction of bark LESSER CELANDINE: expressed juice of leaves /

OAK: Decoction of bark / PLANTAIN: expressed juice / POPLAR: decoction of leaf buds

SILVERWEED: Infusion of whole plant but root / SOLOMON'S SEAL: Decoction of root.


BRACKEN: Infusion of root / FEVERFEW: decoction leaves and flowers / FIGWORT: infusion of whole plant but roots / TANSY: infusion of leaves & flowers, use sparingly in small amount.


WILLOW leaves and barks make a decoction containing Salicin a base for Aspirin.

FOR HEALING: Expressed the juice from COMFREY leaves to Aid tissue regrowth (Cuts / Burns).


Many thousands of Tropical plants are known to have medicinal properties and are used by tribal people. Relatively few have been studied by Western scientists or are widely known.

The following are a few of the many plants that may be of use but lacking the accurate information on them you will do better to take medicines with you whenever you can.

NEVER experiment with something that you can not positively identify unless you are ready to study & take the risk to die or be very sick from it.

COPPERLEAF: (acalypha indica)

Is one of several similar shrubs in India & S-WEST Asia reaching 2-3m (6 1/2 -10 feet): with oval to heart shaped leaves that are often variegated in shades of red bright pink and green.

In Malaysia the leaves are dried and drunk like tea. A decoction of roots & leaves is laxative & restorative.

ALSTONIA: Including Alsostonias scholaris;

Are found from India east to Philippines & South to Indonesia & parts of Australia.

Boil the bark in water to produce a Tonic, reduce fever, relieve diabetes and kill internal parasitic worms.


Occur from India to China & Indonesia, a decoction of leaves & bark will Help to suppress Malaria and Dysentery. Use oil from seeds to treat ulcers and skin complaints.


Occur in many fairly similar forms from India to China & South to Australia. All parts are bitter tasting.

Take seeds of Brucea Sumatra for Diarrhoea & Dysentery. Crushed leaves = Relieve external bleedings soothe boils & insect bites.


Is a relative of Ginger found in India & part East. Is a tall herbaceous plant with thick fleshy rhizomes and a long branched head of flowers.

Use seeds or expressed juice of fruit for settling the Digestion and relieving nausea.


China barks or red barks, large trees, typically with red brown trunks, wild in tropical South America have been taken all over the world.

Take a decoction of the QUININE containing bark to Suppress Malaria.



IS A FAIRLY COMMON EDIBLE PLANT OF THE TROPICS. Used expressed juice from the roots & leaves to treat Skin eruption & inflammations.


Is another Asian tree whose bark when cut yields a latex like sap. Use this sap in small amounts to treat Worms.


Is an erect downy annual up to 1m (3ft 4in): tall with oblong toothed leaves and yellowish flowers. It occurs from India east to Taiwan Use an infusion of the leaves for Coughs & Fevers. The seeds are mildly Laxative.


Have stems with stiff spreading hairs, broadly oval leaves up to 15cm (5in): long and small greenish white flowers. It grows in Tropical Africa.

Use tender leaves and shoots as a potherb or in a strong infusion to treat Tapeworm & Diarrhoea. Use a poultice of leaves on Boils, Abscesses & Wounds.


Is found from India east to Papua, New Guinea & Polynesia. A decoction of bark and leaves relieves Upset stomachs feverish aches & pains.


Use leaves to promote Sweating to relieve colds fevers & asthma & a decoction of the bark to suppress Malaria.


Scrape gum off the bark use to treat Worms & Diarrhoea.


The following plants are found in Temperate climates. Many are very common and all are quite safe.

Use them to Staunch bleeding & heal wounds for fevers colds & digestive upsets & other treatments as described. Some have several uses but they have been grouped here under their most common application.



Grow to about 30cm (1ft): with oval often downy leaves and white flowers tinged violet or purple veined and with a yellow spot, in grassy places, often in mountains in Eurasia.

A strained infusion of the whole plant is excellent for Eye infection. It is also said to Ease; Hay-Fever & Catarrh & Nasal congestion.


Occur in many varieties in most Temperate and now Tropical PART the smell will lead you to them. Most have long strap like leaves arising from the bulb and a tall stem topped with a cluster of small pinkish or white flowers.

THE BULB IS POWERFULLY ANTISEPTIC use as expressed juice externally diluted with water to treat Wounds & swellings and eat garlic to treat and to Prevent Colds. It also contains a natural antibiotic.


Is a small aromatic mat forming with small oval leaves and reddish purple flowers; in dry grassy places in western Eurasia but other species occur elsewhere. Use its Antiseptic qualities. In an infusion for Coughs & Colds or as a potherb.


Grow to 90cm (3ft): with square stems pointed oval leaves and red brown flowers; in woods clearing and scrub in Eurasia.

There are many different kinds. Apply as a decoction to Reduce Swellings, Sprains, Boils & Bruises, to dissipate blood clots & for treating Haemorrhoids.



Is a downy creeping plant with pointed oval leaves and heads of violet flowers in dry grassy and waste places in Eurasia. Use as expressed juice to Staunch bleeding or by infusion for internal haemorrhage.



Grow to 30cm (1ft): with a hairy stem deeply loved leaves and small pinkish five petals flowers in dry grassy and waste places. Use as expressed juice to STAUNCH BLEEDING OR AS A DECOCTION FOR INTERNAL HAEMORRHAGE.



Is strong smelling hairy up to 90cm (3ft): tall with toothed heart shaped leaves and spikes of dark pink to purple white blotted flowers usually found in damp places, similar species by woodland edges and shady waste place.



Grow to 50cm (20in): with a hand shaped deeply lobed leaves and tiny white or pinkish flowers in a compact head widespread in woodland in Eurasia.



Grow to 50cm (20in): with a leathery evergreen broadly spear shaped leaves and large blue violet flowers in woody scrubby and rocky places in Eurasia There are many kinds of Periwinkle in other parts of the world.



Provide juice for Treating wounds and for treating Chest pains & complaints.


MOUNTAIN AVENS: (DRYAS OCTOPETALA) In Mountainous rocky & Northern Arctic areas.

Resemble a creeping wild Strawberry, with well lobed leaves, paler below and large white yellow staminate flowers.

Use an infusion of stems leaves and flowers for Diarrhoea or as a Gargle.


Is lemon scented and hairy, growing to about 60cm (2ft) with toothed oval greenish yellow leaves and whorls or small white flowers at the leaf bases. In grassy places in the warmer part of Eurasia.

Use an infusion of the whole plant for Fevers and nausea. Can also be used to Ease painful menstruation.


Is aromatic hairy ALWAYS near fresh water with toothed pointed oval leaves a purplish stem to 80cm (32in) and cluster of pinkish flowers.

Use as infusion of the leaves for Diarrhoea as a digestive and heated to induce perspiration in fevers.

Similar mints are also effective. If made too strong the infusion may become #EMETIC.#


Are tall trees with large oval tooted leaves green disc-shaped fruits and often suckers at the base of the trunk.

Use a decoction of the bark for Diarrhoea & skin eruptions.


Is straggling with long prickly stems whorls of narrow prickly leaves and small white flowers, widespread on moist woody and waste ground.

Young plants can be boiled and eaten like spinach. Use an infusion to ease Constipation. Give frequent dose mixed with an equal quantity of Marsh mallow for #cystitis# .


Grow to 90cm (3ft) with a downy stem toothed spear-shaped leaflets, greyish below and a tall spike of yellow flowers in dry grassy places. There are several different kinds.

Use as an infusion of the whole plant to ease constipation & acid stomach, also use to treat Cystitis giving small doses frequently.



Grow to 20cm (8in) with shiny dark green heart shaped leaves and yellow flowers, in wet woodland and damp ground in Eurasia.

Apply the expressed juice externally for Haemorrhoids. Do not confuse with its POISONOUS relatives; BUTTERCUPS


Are small patch forming with arching stems bearing tube shaped greenish white flowers in woody scrubby areas.

Use a decoction of the root externally for Haemorrhoids & Bruises, or take an infusion for nausea.

The starchy root is EDIBLE like parsnip but when boiled and dried it sets hard as makeshift plaster for a splinting agent.

Either as infusion or poultice made from the woodered root will ease bruising.



Also provide an infusion for treating disgetive disturbances & haemorrhoids.



Is very aromatic, grows to 45cm (18in) with delicate yellowish leaflets and many daisies like flowers. In waste and grassy places in Eurasia. Eating the leaves ease headchaes & migraines / But to some people this can cause blistering in the mouth.

It is SAFER to use an infusion of the whole plant for fever, headaches and general pains or tincture for insect bites.

Frequent small doses of a hot infusion help regulate contraction for childbirth


Is aromatic creeping with finely dissected leaves and daisy like flowers; in grassy places in Eurasia.

Use an infusion of the whole plant for fevers, headaches, migraines, & colds or the expressed juice of the flowers for aches and sprains

It has calming influence especially on nervous excited children.


Is common from LATE WINTER ON BARE & WASTE GROUND. Large, yellow Dandelion like flowers top asparagus like stems. Heart shaped leaves follow the flowers. Use the leaves by infusion for colds & coughs.


Is downy up to 30cm (1ft) with pale spotted spear shaped leaves and bells shaped pink or purplish blue flowers, in mixed woods and scrub in Eurasia.

An infusion of the whole plant is excellent for Chest complaints and useful for diarrhoea, for coughs: Use with equal parts of Colt's Foot.


Is thyme scented downy with squarish stems up to 50cm (20in) roundish crinkly greenish white leaves and whorls of whitish flowers; in dry scrubby places in Eurasia.

Use an infusion of the whole plant for chills & respiratory disorder.

Oil expressed from the leaves soothes earache. It is a good cough treatment for children. In large doses it is laxative.


Is downy aromatic up to 60cm (2ft) with dissected feathery dark green leaves and heads of tiny white or pink flowers. In grassy places.

Use an infusion of the whole plant but not the roots. For colds & fevers. Also hasten, speeds clothing of blood in an injury & reduces blood pressure & bleeding haemorrhoids.


Grow in grassy and scrubby places to about 60cm (2ft) with a hairy stem deeply divided leaves and large pink five petals flowers. Mallows are widespread and come in many varieties. Use this like Marsh Mallows.


Grow to 3m (9ft) with a hairy stem woody at the base ivy shaped leaves & pink purple flowers streaked darker in rocky coastal areas from Europe to Asia Minor. Use this like Marsh Mallow.


Grow to 90cm (3ft) downy grey with large lobed leaves and pale pink flowers. THE COOKED ROOT IS EXCELLENT TO EAT.

Use an infusion of the whole plant for CHEST COMPLAINTS or one just of the root to relieve giddiness caused by loss of blood & to clean wounds and sores.

A rubbing with bruised leaves soothes insect bites. Boiled leaves are a good poultice for skin eruptions. An infusion of the leaves will relax & sooth irritation & inflammations of the alimentary system.


Is covered in pale woody down, growing to 2m (6ft) with large spear shaped leaves and a dense spike of 5 petals yellow flowers in dry warm grassy places.

Use an infusion of flowers and leaves for coughs & chest complaints or a decoction of the root as a gargle. Powder the flowers to make a sedative & pain reliving tea.



Grow to 60cm (2ft) with small oblong translucently spotted leaves and a head of golden yellow flowers that exude a red juice when crushed; in open woods, grassy and bushy places. Use an infusion of the whole plant for colds and chest complaints.

20 Favourite scents of men and women 1966 study in England


1= Honeysuckle 2= Fresh strawberry 3= Red Rose 4 = New dawn Rose 5 = Wild Rose 6 = Emily Gray rose 7 = Sweet pea 8= Stock & Bonds? 9 = Mock orange blossoms 10 = Meadowsweet (flower).


1= Sweet pea 2= Red Rose 3 = Honeysuckle 4 = New Dawn rose 5= Fresh strawberry 6= Emily Gray rose 7= Stock & bonds? 8= English Lavender oil 9 = Meadowsweet flower 10 = French Lavender oil.

Men seem to prefer mock orange, honeysuckle, wild rose, musk ambrette, ilang-ilang and lemon grass much more than women. Women prefer alpine violet perfume, bay leaf and onions.

Women also prefer perfume and food associated odours. (They love to eat and complain about their weight all out of whack) Oh dear, dear!



1) Buttercup: Fields / All / Indigestion

2) CherryTrees: Shrubs /Twigs, Foliage /DEATH

3) Crocus: Autumn/ Flower garden /Bulbs/Vomiting

4) Daphnia: Ornament / plant / Berries /DEATH

5) Elderberry: Trees, shrubs / Shoots / Nausea

6) Foxglove: Flower garden /Leaves / Irregular heart beat

7) Hemlock: Fields/ All / DEATH

8) Hyacinth: House plant / Bulbs / Nausea & DEATH

9) Iris: Flower / garden / Underground stems / Indigestion

10) Jimsonweed: Fields / All /DEATH / Indigestion

11) Larkspur: Flower garden / Young plant seeds / DEATH/ indigestion

12) Lily of Valley: Flower garden / Leaves, flowers / Irregular heart beat

13) Nightshade: Fields / All / especially berries = / DEATH

14) Oak Trees: Shrubs Foliage,/ acorns / Kidney injury

15) Oleander: House plant / Leaves/ branches / Indigestion & DEATH

16) Red Sage: Ornament plant /Green Berries /DEATH

17) Rhododendron: Ornament plant /All / DEATH

18) Rhubarb: Vegetable garden / Leaf - blade /DEATH

19) Wisteria: Ornament plan / seeds, pods / Indigestion

20) Yew: Ornament plant / Berries, foliage / DEATH

P/S: The above # will be found in the following pictures sequence

# 1= # 2= #3= #4= # etc.