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SIGNALS: (Jane calling Spock?)

As in any survival operation, ALL signalization instruments MUST be checked and ready to serve as soon as you get aboard a raft.

All articles MUST be attached on you or on the raft to avoid lost or if you capsize. Those instruments MUST be kept dry & ready to serve on demand.

Use the radio according to instructions, without forgetting to save on the batteries until you are certain that the rescue plane is around.

In cold climate don't forget to keep batteries warm. In multi-place plane use the Gibson Girl as instructed.

Soon will be replaced by the path finder and soon to come the bracelet watch path finder. From this special wrist watch to the satellite and back, then you will NEVER get lost or real stranded.

Since you can beam up Spark to get help from Tarzan in space. Big brother will be watching you crazy as well.

Don't light the pyrotechnics pieces unless a plane or ship is in sight, upon firing them, keep them away at arms length and take well care that no burning pieces falls on your raft.

Each time there is sun, use your heliograph mirror. Sweep the horizon with it even if you see no ship nor hear no plane.

To make an improvised mirror, use an empty thin can that you polish up, cut an "X" in the centre and use this instrument as heliograph mirror.


They make natural signals very useful and easy to do.

Smoke is an excellent mean especially during the day, with clear weather and little wind, but they can be used at all time. With those means one can make signals day & night.


With this pistol you can shoot a lighting rocket which produces a red star going up to 150 to 200 feet and lasting 5 to 8 seconds.

To use the pistol, shoot toward the back where no one can be hurt. Put it at arm length and shoot your heart content personal fire work, hoping it will work for your safety.


(Here's Jonny!)

One man rigged his parachute in an arrow to mark the travelling direction he was to take, its colour stood out vividly on the monotonous tundra.

2 others deciding to stay where they were landed, dug deep trenches and stacked blocs of earth to break the prevailing green. Get the sign north to south for better contrast still.


Many a marooned man has danced in jubilation as a rescue ship or plane came near by only to sink into despair when it passed them by without seeing them.

To avoid such disappointments, you MUST learn to rig emergency signals as soon as you land or crash.


Tramping messages in the snow, laying out trenches North and South so that the shadows stand out in the sun moving East to West.

SUMMER TIME messages can be spelled out with rocks, sod blocks, logs, signal panel.


1) As the photo 167b* prepare 3 fire signal spaced about 100 feet from one another and placed in a triangular shape. A group of 3 fires or a series of them means international distress call.

2) Along a river or ravine place the 3 fires in a straight line about 100 feet apart. (A 4th one in case)

3) Prepare the fire in an open place, in a field, a swamp or on raft placed on a lake or bogs and near your shelter so that you can run to light them up when you hear a plane coming.

4) Protect against weather troubles the fire that you have prepared and keep them ready to light with dry wood and candle, and tinder etc.

Keep a fuel reserve of green branches & grass near by at hand to use in emergencies.

5) If you are near the plane crash, you can use the oil, the rubber which in burning give a thick black smoke.

6) Once can make smoke signal every day to attract the attention of the possible habitant of the region.

Forest warden, campers & rescuers who can see the smoke during the day and the light during the night and search the cause.

7) It is not necessary to burn fires all day and night, it would be a: Lost of energy + lost of combustible = totally useless.

8) If a cold air zone at low altitude retains the smoke down near the land, one can usually make it go up above the cold front zone by constructing a bigger fire before adding the substances to make smoke.

This procedure applies especially to regions of really dense forest. Install your fires in a clearing if possible and away from trees.

9) If there exist a thin cloud layer, the night fires will be less bright thus harder to be seen from above. In such occasion it is still best to keep your fires well lighted.

10) Take all necessary precautions and MAKE SURE that the fires will not spread to the surrounding vegetation causing a real forest fire which would kill you for sure.

11) Have a fourth one ready to go and make another triangle should one of the 3 others fail to start.


In survival kits one finds signalization bands in red or orange tissue measuring 8" inches wide and 10 feet long which can be spiked in the open ground giving them the form needed for your emergency.

One can also agitate those bands while standing on a crest or peak as soon as a plane is heard.

One can also colour the snow with the sea dye used when rafting or smoke from a smoke rocket AP night/day. Water Dye marker is also good in soft water.


One can use those signals to party members to locate each other after plane drop or any other emergency, so unless you are in distress or members of rescue party avoid to fire 3 shots. Don't waste ammo.

After each 3 shots fired quickly wait 10 minutes or even more. You can also use the whistle which beats yelling by a mile and half and less stressing and tiring.


See note* at psycho, leave in a bottle or food can or plastic container or bag which you suspend to a tree, a pole stuck in open ground or under a pile or rock. (Not too low under.)

Also you MUST leave on the ground a sol-air sign of your direction taken.

To help yourselves and other rescuers, mark along your path & any change coming along.

And MAKE SURE that the indications given are exact. (Name of this lousy travel agent, ex-wife, mother in law, bank secret number, etc.)


Since 1987 finally we have in the sky 4 geo-stationary satellites build and operated by USA, Canada, France & Russia which already have saved hundreds and hundreds of life through this path-finder satellite gimmick, which you can easily put aboard your plane boat, car or jeep, in your shack if powered by dynamo.

No one should refuse this chance to save himself or to friends and family tons of pains and worries and anguishes. All you need to do is to switch on the apparel and it does everything else.

It beams a steady signal to the satellites which by triangulation of them 4 will spot you dead on target within 5 feet anywhere and anytime in the world under the worst adverse weather conditions or nearly.

The only time it would not work beside the fact of being damaged or power failure is if there was an atomic war.

Which any atomic bomb does beside killing and destroying and creating havoc, is to throw in the atmosphere what is called EMP.

Electro-magnetic-pulse, under that pulse all known and existing transistor apparatus, radio, tv, car, plane, electrical power line, etc. They all go kaput, but those deep under ground are protected.

Soon to come also is the wrist-watch path-finder that any one could use but this is not in the public market only in the army.

By the way did you know, some of us do, that the new kind of key-hole type of satellite can see anyone reading his newspaper or taking a sun-tan or even smoking at night anywhere in the world.

All it needs to know is where you are, they can not read yet the fine print of the morning Pravda or Times but they read the title of its front page, and this in winter, snow, summer, rain or cloudy day of Mid England or Perth Australia.

Big Brother is watching. So imagine showing to the sun-glare a space blanket sheet in open space of hill etc. would attract attention quite well although deflecting a bit from your own place because of lesser heat unless you stand in the middle of it.

The heat scanner will spot the blanket or rock that is bigger and has more heat, a mountain has 7 times more heat than the valley for your knowledge.

A big bird like a crow would also affect the air heat scanner since it is higher up than you thus deflect it from your own nearby presence.


Use the tissue band of a chute or skinned off logs, stones, sod blocks, green branches on snow in order to create the maximum of contrast in an open space.

ALL signs MUST have 40 feet long minimum.

1) GRAVELY WOUNDED, NEED DOCTOR = ++++++++++++++++


= +++++++++++++ +++++++++++++

3) IMMOBILIZED = Show a BIG " X "


5) Need arms and ammo = Show 2 " V " One inside the other yet space them out good!

6) Need Map & Compass = SQUARE

7) Need Signalization Battery = show 2 lines disconnected lamp & CB Radio = +++++ +++++


9) I go in this direction = show a big arrow WHERE >

10) WILL ATTEMPT TO TAKE OFF = Up & Down & Up line with another on the right shape as an ARROW = I >

11) Plane seriously damaged = show: 2 " L "

But they are put one against one another as a broken rectangle does.

12) Probably Safe to land here = " TRIANGLE"

13) Need Fuel & Oil = " L "

14) All Well = " L L "

15) NO = " N "

16) YES = " Y "

17) Not Understood = 2 " L " One toward East & West

18) Require Engineer = " W "


Use these if still available of course and all aircraft parts needed, the plane itself makes an excellent signal so cut down nearby trees and shrubs that may conceal it from the air.

Keep it clear of snow. Shiny piece of metal from the plane laid on the ground will reflect the sun, or carry them on a raft and leave them prop a bit or use a clear sheet of tissue.


They are quite effective when built in a clearing and of sufficient size & contrast.

In Canada across with arms running NORTH-EAST / SOUTH- WEST & NORTH-WEST.

SOUTH-EAST = Will catch Maximum Shadow. Depending where in the world you are, adjust accordingly to cross the sun path directly opposite to its course.


For first-aid in giving reflecting warmth, for fire reflection warmth and light and signals, for rain-proof shelter, signals of all type.

Shadow protection in the Desert, fish lure, water collector etc. All around mirror reflector when put on a tent or teepee shelter. Get one in your pocket one in your pack-sack and survival-kit*.


1) ARCTIC WINTER = snow block wall, line the blocks along the trench from which the snow blocs were cut.

2) ARCTIC SUMMER = sod, stones, sand or driftwood walls, space age blanket or any light tissue.

3) BUSH WINTER = Tramped in the snow, lay green boughs signals, in the snow or better STICK them in the snow & build a wall of brush and boughs around them.

4) BUSH SUMMER = Rock pile signals, bush or logs for letters. Use fresh peeled logs and bark or sod blocks.


Leave them well in sight and signal to your direction taken. Wood charcoal, pen, lipstick will do the job and could save a lot of trouble to rescuers and to yourself.


Establishing contact with or attracting attention of the searchers and rescuers MUST be your MAIN objective as soon as your VITAL NEEDS have been taken care of. In line they are:

F/aid, water, fire, shelter, signal. Then one can think of praying, (Blessed! Who trust in God!) Food, hunting, fishing, travelling.

1) Have your signals all ready & show them effectively.

2) Prepare as many types of signals as you can at the best possible site.

3) Protect signals & equipment from moisture and cold.

4) Remember that any unusual sign or colour contrast is visible from the air, even a single trail in the snow.

5) Use gun sparingly & with caution.

6) Smoke and a Mirror are your BEST signal when no radio.

7) Care for signal equipment and learn how to use it.



Any form of light can be used. Camp fires, flashlight, candles or grass, torches, space blanket, mirror and heliograph, mirror type.

A good trick is to employ a light inside a tepee or tent which lights up like a giant Japanese lantern.

Also a teepee type of construction that you roll around your space blanket for an all around mirror.


1) Select an evergreen tree with thick foliage, one that is isolated from other tree to stop forest fire danger.

2) In winter shake the tree, use a rope to do so, or hammer the base and remove as much snow and ice as possible.

3) Build a "bird's nest" in the lower branches of the tree using branches of other trees with dry kindling and barks mixed with them.

4) Around the base of the tree, prepare a bonfire-using feather sticks, dry splintered wood, bark (birch best), gas or any combustible material around, oil from plane allowed to spill on ground before it freezes in the motor, can also be used without problems.

5) This bonfire will burn and ignite the bird's nest which helps fire up the whole tree making it a gigantic torch visible for miles around by plane or anyone around.

6) Prepare this signal in advance and use precaution against getting the kindling wet or wind shift spreading fires.

7) Follow signal instructions to the letter. Don't invent them. These methods are know by others as well. Don't confuse us Please!


If gas and oil are available use only when plane is sighted. Pour the fuel on the ground or saturate piece of tissue & light them when needed.

Take ALWAYS fire precaution. Gas and oil poured in sand pail with holes in it to make it breath will produce landing light if needed. Oil has to be warmed up before it takes on fire.


Lately it is sold a credit card size made of metal that has one side as a heliograph mirror and the other side as a multi-function tool, such as can and beer opener, wood saw, knife, ruler, file screwdriver, fits in your wallet, key-chain, etc. Get one it really comes handy & it's ONLY 10 dollars.

This very useful and important and easy to carry piece of equipment MUST be on you at all time and a spare one in the S/Kit or in your car, plane, boat.

This device has probably been responsible for affecting more rescues than any other methods.

It is simply a mirror with a hole in its centre so that it reflects the light to aim accurately at the searchers.

Now how to use it accurately, catch the sun, use the hole and beam on your hand and finger first.

Carry this hand or finger toward the plane or ship, remove your hand and the beam that was pointed on it will reach the plane or ship in a flash.

It can be seen many miles away on a clear sunny day. If you have no mirror use a piece of shiny polished metal, the side of a ration can make a good usable mirror.

Carefully cut a cross about 1 inch long in the center of the sheet with the point of your knife while the metal is laying on a flat surface.

At night when you use your flashlight in one direction another person can take some of that beam & shoot it backward.

A candle light or lamp or lantern can be used effectively Each time there is sun.

Use the mirror, sweep the horizon with it even if you don't see or ear a plane or ship or person.


If the angle of the sun and the plane or ship is not too great (90 max) you can hold the mirror 3 to 6 inches away from your face and sight the plane through the small hole in the centre.

The light from the sun shinning through the hole will form a spot of light on your face and this spot will be reflected in the rear surface of the mirror.

Then still sighting on the plane through the hole, adjust the angle of the mirror until the reflection of the light spot on the rear of the mirror coincides with the hole in the mirror and disappears. The reflected light will now be accurately aimed at the plane.

If the angle between the target and the sun is greater than 90 degree, sight the plane through the hole then adjust the angle of the mirror till the reflection of the light spot on your hand coincides with the hole in the mirror and disappears.

This method will work where the plane or ship is almost on one horizon and the sun almost 180 degrees away on the opposite direction.


There are certain established body signal that will be recognized by most airmen.


Lie on your back with arms stretched straight behind you. Another widely used signal indicating severe injury is the crossing of the arms across the body.


Standing erect with the left arm hanging at the side and the right one upraised.

ABLE TO PROCEED SHORTLY AND THE PLANE SHOULD WAIT IF POSSIBLE = Stand erect, leave left hand at the side and you hold the right arm horizontal.


If you continue to stand erect & lift both arms horizontals.


Stand and hold both arms straight above your head beam me up Scotty or SPOCK!


Swinging your hands side wise back & forth above your head.


Squat on your heels and point in the direction of the recommended landing place.


If you have one and that the receiver is working, this you can signify by cupping your hands conspicuously, over your ears.


If you want the pilot to drop a message, swing the right hand down in front of you to shoulder height several times.

YES = :

Wave something such as a shirt etc. UP & DOWN in front of you.

NO = :

Wave such an article back & forth in front of you.

Although signs vary with different groups the plane can make an affirmative by dipping up and down the way the head is nodded. Show negation by a slight zigzag as shaking the head.

Green flash from a signalling lamp or plane rocking from side to side is to tell that the plane has understood the message. Red light on the signalling lamp or a complete right hand circuit that is has not.


Certain distress signals are used by the US Coast guard. A red light, or red rocket or flare at night indicates that you have been seen and that help is soon forthcoming.


Is signalled by waving a red flag from shore during daylight and by displaying a red light at night.


Is indicated when a white flag is waved from the shore by day. Waving a white light slowly back & forth, firing a white rocket or setting off white roman candle.


During the daylight the beckoning of a man ashore or the burning of 2 torches close together.


An extremely simple precaution that would save thousands of hours of needless effort, anxiety and agony every season is for each of us to make his plans known every time we are about to head to the bush. Or to leave messages well in sight.

Even when we park his car beside the highway with the idea of perhaps fishing for an hour it would take only a few moments or two to jot down that information and to wedge it in the wind shield wiper.

Any of us can think of numerous reasons why we might somehow be delayed & in dear need of help.


The hunter tries as calmly as possible to calculate the place where he is from, then using land mark such as dead or high tree hills etc. he walks the most straight forward as possible toward his goal.

Meanwhile he marks trees on both sides with his knife or axe or a rock so that he can come back should he have to.

Then he MUST try to evaluate as best as he can the travelled distance rarely more than one mile and not to overpass this distance.

Even counting his steps so as to do walks as similar as possible 1000 double steps give roughly 1 mile, then after that he should come back to his starting point, easy since he marked his way.

He then will go in the opposite direction for the same time or distance and mark his trees with 2 landmark and ALWAYS on both sides, then return if unsuccessful.

There is NO doubt that if he does the 4 lines he will find his old trail back. He will not have walked more than 8 miles which is easy to do in one day.


When you show 3 big puffs of smoke in slow succession it means to say = GO AHEAD.

An uninterrupted smoke column means = STOP!

Small puffs alternating with big ones mean = DANGER!!!

To make your fire to smoke up, light it as usual and when it is going good add up green leaves, damp grass, tire pieces, etc. Ping-Pong balls that are crushed make excellent smoke signal that you carry in a small container in your s/kit.

Cover the fire with a damp blanket, take it off to make smoke puff and put it back on.

Smoke will be more or great a puff depending of how long you take off the blanket, so for a short puff burst count 1 & 2 then place it back for counting to 8 seconds.

Remove it for 2 seconds and start over, now for the long dash count to 6 seconds & live 4 seconds between each burst of smoke.


They are the same as with smoke but use dry wood etc. to give a good light. Plastic ropes give quick heat burst and also stronger light for signal.

2 men hold a blanket in front of the fire, that is between the fire and those to reach, so that they will only see the fire when desired.

And if possible a third one reads the message to do by the others. Again they count 2 for short spot, 6 for long spots and 4 in each interval.


Most soldier or seaman know them, here is the letter and the position of the arms, it looks complicated but in fact is simple. We give you the signals as they appear to the reader.

For the letter: " A to G " We use only one arm (right) while making it do a circle, 1/8 of the arc for each letter. (7am, 9, 11 etc.)

Then from " H to N " except for "J" the right arm takes the position of "A" & the left arm moves as the other one did at start.

From "O to S" the right arm is in "B" position (9pm) and the left arm goes around its merry way.

As for "T U V" and the sign "Annul" the right arm is in "C" (11am) the left arm does the circle in 4 different positions.

The letter "A to I" also equals the Numbers & "K" = Zero at the condition that you warn by signs.

Use the code = right arm at 12 AM and left arm at 2 PM to signify your using NUMERALS. Numbers can also mean a number of different messages.

For the control the control station repeats the numbers. This is important to do.

If the central station makes an error it does the signal = Right arm at 11 am & 5pm for the left arm.

Note about the signal colour of the flag: 1/2 of it is white at the top and the other 1/2 is black for better contrast at the bottom.

And after the other gang has repeated this sign, it restarts to do the numbers. The sender MUST ALWAYS face the receptor position.

When the reception centre has correctly read a word, she sends her regular signal. If it does not answer to a word, the expediters or senders know that they have not been read or heard, they will then repeat it till answered.

YES = 1 blow 2 = NO or reverse.

DON'T FORGET TO WRITE DOWN MESSAGE CODES. & TO CARRY THEM. (*Mnemothecnic phrases to invent via Morse code?)


A = * + = as

P = * ++ * = apte

B = + *** = bees

Q = ++ * + = pho

C = + * + * = coco

R = * + * = ere

D = + ** = duo

U = ** + = ouf

F = ** + * = eife

V = *** + = oeuf

G = ++ * = glu

W = * ++ = onf

J = * +++ = offr

X = + ** + = noix

K = + * + = kim

Y = + * ++ = lynx

L = * + ** = elie

Z = ++ ** = zzou

N = + * = nu

Naturally you don't see listed the letters composed only of short dot or long shots dash.

Easy to remember all the world knows them to be: EISH & TMOCH (TOO MUCH?)

You have certainly heard of the opposite method, here it is. Converting Dash in Dot & Dot in Dash.

+ E T *

++ I M **

+++ S O ***

++++ H CH ****

+ **** 1 6 * ++++

++ *** 2 7 ** +++

+++ ** 3 8 *** ++

++++ * 4 9 **** +

+++++ 5 0 *****

The letter C V Z escape this method of classification.

+ *** J B * +++

+ ** W D * ++

+ * A N * +

++ * U G ** +

++ * + F Q ** + *

+ * + R K * + *

+ * ++ L Y * + **

+ ** + P X * ++ *

It is very difficult to learn Morse code without the help of the trick of mnemothecnic so choose the one you want or create your own set of words or phrase but don't change the value of the dots nor of the dash.

ALL signals are sent in group ex:

AR = + * + * +


You will save an unnecessary mental process by recognizing that directly as " A " without having to go to the trouble of figuring that:

Dot / Dash is really also: Dit / Dah of old timers which in turn is the first letter of the alphabet (*) = Dit (-) = Dah !


DIAMETER = Equal the straight line in a middle circle. ( 22/7 ) And other basic measuring measures to be included later on.***


Except under extenuating circumstances when it is obviously only a very short distance in a frequented route or populated area and there is negligible chance of any individual of getting lost the "Hudson Bay Cie" emergencies instructions specify.

ALWAYS STAY near with airplane. It is much easier to locate an airplane that may have been forced down in Northern Canada than an individual walking through the North."

If for any reasons whatsoever one goes away from a downed plane even for a short period he owes to himself and searchers to leave a note in an obvious place stating in detail his plans and where he is going and other important notes.

A plane that has crashed or been forced to land will be easier to spot if brightly hue and highly reflecting objects are placed on and about it.

The Hudson Bay Cie. has found efficacious to remove cow panels and to place them with their unpainted surfaces upward to act as reflector.

Coloured wing covers, the 300 years old Cie. found that it makes it easier to locate down planes from the air.

ALL such items as well as the aircraft itself should manifestly be kept clear of snow, frost and debris and cleared to be seen.

When flying over isolated area, especially in private plane, it is no more than a conservative measure to have along clothing and particularly foot wear that will enable one to fend for himself in the even of forced landing.

Besides if you can afford a plane you should or MUST have enough money to buy a satellite path finder to help along and save pains, troubles, worries and money to all, including you first & loved ones who await your return. (Travel agent, income tax boys, as well as your dog, mother in law? Insurance agent and others.

In such emergency it is often possible to become acquainted or generally familiar with the terrain while still airborne. Even when bailing out up to a term. (At sea & night?***)

An important factor then being to establish if possible a line to the wrecked plane if only because of its wealth of usually actual and even after a fire potential survival equipment.


What can be ALL important is to be braced at the moment of the severest impact and not to relax at what may be the initial shock caused by the tail's touching.

Actual continuous bracing MUST NOT be started more than a couple minute too soon or faltering muscles will be unable to maintain their tension.

A MAJOR DANGER in many instances is that of the head being snapped disastrously forward.

One PRECAUTION is to swath the head in coats and in other protective material available.

Another Precaution in case of absence of seat belt is to sit with the back toward the front and with the head held down by firmly clasped hands.

Urination is ADVISED to help lower the chances of internal injury. (Yes? In your pants!) Check rpt***


A fire in addition to its warmth and for good fellowship makes one of the better signs and in fact if we are in any of the numerous areas where regular watches are kept from towers & observation planes.

We will in an emergency often have only to kindle a fire to attract attention and help.


One way to send up the smoke that will make the conflagration MOST seen & conspicuous during daylight is by throwing evergreen boughs into a hot fire.

Black smoke can be obtained too with oil from the wrecked plane or disabled outboard or car motor.

This is one reason in cold country the sump oil may well be drained off before congealing while the plane engine is still warm.

Not only does it make a hot fire particularly when mixed with gas, but poured on a hearty blaze it rolls up a tremendous surge of black smoke.

Water will give a white smoke, although this as every one realises too much dampness will drastically quell and even kill the fire.

A long lasting smudge can be built however by covering hot coals with humid green foliage, wet dead leaves, slowly burning green wood, moist decayed wood, damp animal dung etc.

If there is any scarcity of fuel, it may be preferable to keep only a small fire going if needed for comfort and to concentrate upon heaping up signal pyres to be lit at a moment notice.

The smoke from a strong smudge fire can, incidentally be INVALUABLE for indicating wind direction to the rescue plane pilot.

Gas in the sand hole or trench is poured then lighted is well seen from above, good to make night light signs.


The most universal noted distress signals are based on the number three 3 flashes, 3 shots etc. SOS = *** +++ *** (save our shirt)?

There is unfortunately no general agreement as to how signal shots out to be spaced.

Some say to fire the 3 blast as quickly as possible although it is not unusual for a hunter to do that while hunting also. If 3 = SOS then 2 shots = all is well!

The practice to separate each shot by about 5 seconds in more logical especially as this gives to an experienced listener the time he may need to determine where the signal comes from. In any event this point MUST be decided in advance by members of a group.


One of the simplest and most valuable precaution a party in a wilderness area can take is to agree upon a set of signals for its own use.

These should be brief & uncomplicated and MUST take in account all reasonable contingencies such as the possibility that any member may be out or short of ammo.

You also be well advised to have this code committed down on paper so that each member has his own on him at all time. Possibly rolled within his waterproof match case.


Particularly handy in remote area to signal your position and to give messages.

DON'T shout, just blow the whistle. Shouting makes tired and creates panic and exhausts you. You should wear it all time!


Such a signal transmitted by flag can be seen for miles under favourable conditions especially if the sender places himself in an unobstructed spot against a contrasting background.

Reading with the help of field glasses we have thus sent messages mountain to mountain.

The flag may be something as large as a handkerchief or a shirt knotted to the end of a light pole some 6 feet long so as to expose an easily distinguishable area.

It can usually be most easily manipulated if the base of the staff is held at wait level in the palm of one hand and the stick gripped a dozen inches or so higher by the master hand.

All the letters start with the staff held straight upward. The dot " * " is made by swinging the flag down to the right and then back again.

A way to fix this in mind is to remember that the word right has a dot over the " i ".It will follow that the dash + is made by swinging the flag in similar manner arc to the left and back.

You will find that the easiest way to keep the flag flat for maximum visibility will be to move it in tight loops.

To send the letter " N " swift left & back & then right & back in what is when you look up at the tip of the staff a narrow figure of 8.

Hold the flag upright a moment to end a letter. Lower and raise it in front of your to finish a word.

Swinging right + left + right / left + right Will signify the end of the message. Signalling is not correctness of form but common sense?!?


If you think others are in hearing range, blow whistle, fire gun. Control shouting, it can become tiring & can increase anxiety.

Signalling is the ONLY active thing you can do to aid in your rescue, but praying ALWAYS helps as well for you mental & moral attitude.

Start fire. After fire is well on, add green branches & leaves to increase smoke.

Smoke is best signal in forest. During summer fire spotters will see it.

MAKE SURE fire is in safe area built on a non burnable mineral hearth to avoid starting forest fire.

Direct signalling to aircraft use mylar of the centrefold or mirror to reflect sun light at aircraft or search party.

If you think others are in hearing range, fire gun 3 times in a row it's an international distress signal.

Blow whistle. Don't yell for voice range is short, it causes exhaustion & stimulates panic.

If down in brush with injury, find stick, attach orange cover elevate above brush & wave to attract attention.


Find clearing, scatter branches, rocks, dirt & or tramp out largest possible " X " (minimum size 18 feet) to attract aerial searchers.

They MUST be North and South so that the shadows stand out in the sun moving East to West.


In Desert do the same on sand.

If such ground markers can not be made & help approaches use mylar or mirror reflector or whistle or bright coloured jacket or any colourful contrasting moving object to attract eyes.


Many a marooned person has danced of joy as rescue ship cruises overhead only to sink into despair as it passes by.

To avoid this one MUST master signal & be ready to get them seen when rescue comes near by. So you MUST rig emergency signals as soon as you can.


Messages may be spelled out with sod blocks, logs or rocks.

The more different variety of messages the better, from smoke pot to flares, to mirror to waving arms, gun shots "3 in a row" yet don't waste ammunition.

Signification Morse Semaphore

Calling: AAA *+*+*+ Flag at 8pm right

Wait: AS *+** AS

Ready to receive: K +*+ K (go ahead Dick)

Understood: T + (lite/flag)

C: (after each word) (sound = nothing)

Repeat: (2nd) UD **++** Wait

Annul (error!): EEE *** *** *** Annul

End of message: AR *+*+* AR

Received = R *+* R

Slow down: MD +++** MD 2 Signalization speed

From = DE DE +**** DE

R = affirmative R *+* R

Message Break = BT +***+ BT





to check that all is really clear on this code to avoid any MISS-STEACKS! ITS VERY IMPORTANT!!!!